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Supernova Remnants: dense gas and g -ray emission. Roger Chevalier University of Virginia. Vela. M. Lorenzi. Evolution stages (Spitzer 1968, Woltjer 1972,…). 0509-67.5 in LMC. S147.

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Supernova remnants dense gas and g ray emission

Supernova Remnants:dense gas and g-ray emission

Roger Chevalier

University of Virginia

Vela

M. Lorenzi


Evolution stages spitzer 1968 woltjer 1972
Evolution stages(Spitzer 1968, Woltjer 1972,…)

0509-67.5 in LMC

S147

Complications: mass loss from progenitor, complex interstellar medium, hydrodynamic instabilities, ejecta knots, effects of magnetic fields and relativistic particles

  • Ejecta- dominated

    • ~103 years

  • Nonradiative Sedov blast wave

    • ~104 years

  • Radiative shell

    • ~105 years

  • Return to interstellar medium


Radiative shock
Radiative shock

Ha,…

Recombination (to HI)

(jump)

Compressed region:

Thermal gas

Relativistic particles

Magnetic field

Draine & McKee 1993


IC 443

D. Churchill

Radio (Lee+ 2008) Optical Ha

Duin & van der Laan (1975) showed detailed correspondence and

developed model of radio from compressed IS fields and particles

Application to g-ray emission: Chevalier (1977), Blandford & Cowie (1982)


Drew + 2005

S147 Ha


Radio 11 cm Optical Ha Xiao et al. 2008


S147 Optical H

Optical (Ha)

Fermi – LAT

Katsuta + 2012


Models for s147
Models for S147 Optical H

  • Non-radiative blast wave, radiative filaments (Katsuta +)

    • Distance – 1.3 kpc

    • Age – 30,000 yr

    • E=(1-3)×1051 erg

    • n0=2-6 cm-3 (fil.)

    • vsh ~ 100 km/s

    • f=0.001-0.008 (filling factor of filaments)

    • Blast wave: n0=0.03-0.1 cm-3, vb=500 km/s


S147 in radiative phase
S147 in radiative phase? Optical H

  • Pro

    • Morphology

    • Diffuse optical emission is radiative shock emission

    • Filaments have comparable velocities to diffuse emission (Kirshner, Arnold 1979); filaments – edge on shocks plus intersecting shock regions

    • Non-detection of X-rays (Sauvageot + 1990)

  • Con

    • Need age ≥ 60,000 yr

    • Distance ~0.8 kpc


PSR J0538+2817 now Optical H

40,000 years old

60,000 years old

Ng et al. 2007


Models for s1471
Models for S147 Optical H

  • Non-radiative blast wave, radiative filaments (Katsuta +)

    • Distance – 1.3 kpc

    • Age – 30,000 yr

    • E=(1-3)×1051 erg

    • n0=2-6 cm-3 (fil.)

    • vsh ~ 100 km/s

    • f=0.001-0.008 (filling factor of filaments)

    • Blast wave: n0=0.03-0.1 cm-3, vb=500 km/s

  • Radiative shell …

    • 0.8 kpc

    • 60,000 yr

    • ~1×1051 erg

    • 1-2 cm-3

    • ~ 100 km/s

    • f~1


S147 g ray emission
S147 Optical H g-ray emission

Escape from dense shell?

Fermi ~1×1034 erg/s (Katsuta + 2012)

With standard assumptions (shock acceleration of IS cosmic rays, compression to cool shell), radiative shell model overpredicts luminosity by ≥10 (Tang & RAC)


Ic 443 a molecular cloud interactor
IC 443 – a molecular cloud interactor Optical H

Pulsar

All molecular

emission

Radio continuum

Shocked CO contours

Lee et al. 2012

21 cm continuum emission

Lee et al. 2008


Radiative shock Optical H

emission

21 cm continuum emission

Lee et al. 2008


Shocked HI contours on optical image

Lee et al. 2008


Radiative shell clump interaction model chevalier 1999
Radiative shell/clump interaction model shell in 10 cm(Chevalier 1999)

Applied to IC 443,

W44, 3C 391

Competing model:

nonradiative blast

wave in intercloud

region (Reach + 2005,

Uchiyama + 2010)

High pressure


Ic 443 g ray emission
IC 443 shell in 10 cmg-ray emission

Molecular clumps

EGRET

Fermi - GeV

VERITAS - TeV

MAGIC

Abdo + 2010


Ic 443 agile
IC 443 – AGILE shell in 10 cm

Tavani et al. 2010


Ic 443
IC 443 shell in 10 cm

  • Observe ~1035 ergs/s in g-rays, which is close to prediction in radiative shell model

  • But, unlike radio, g-rays are primarily from region of molecular interaction

    • J (jump) and C (continuous) shocks are present

    • Possible shell interaction with clumps

    • Crucial aspect may be mass

  • g-rays from radiative shell are expected (as in S147)


Early interaction with dense mass loss
Early interaction with dense mass loss shell in 10 cm

Shocked region:

X-ray and

radio emission,

expect g-rays


Optical light curves shell in 10 cm

powered by cs interaction

1044 erg/s

Stoll

et al.

2011


  • SN 2006gy faint in X-rays near maximum light, ≤10 shell in 10 cm40 erg/s. Reasons:

    • Inverse Compton cooling by photospheric photons more important than bremsstrahlung

    • Comptonization in the cool wind reduces energy of the highest energy X-ray photons

    • Photoelectric absorption in the cool wind


SN 2006gy shell in 10 cm

Relativistic p cooling

SN 2010jl

D*=1 0.1 M/yr at 100 km/s

RAC + Irwin 2012


Sn 2010jl x ray
SN 2010jl X-ray shell in 10 cm

Chandra

Dec 2010, t ~ 2 months

T>12 keV

NH ~ 1e24 cm-2

L~1042 ergs/s

Chandra

Oct 2011, t ~ 1 year

T>8 keV

NH ~ 3e23 cm-2

L~1042 ergs/s

P. Chandra, RAC,…. 2012


Fermi shell in 10 cm

Model A – like SN 2006gy

Emission

Allowing for pair production in

matter and g-g pair production

Model B – like SN 2010jl

Assumes d= 10 Mpc

CTA

from Murase + 2011

also Katz + 2011


Final remarks
Final remarks shell in 10 cm

Interpretation of g-ray emission can depend on model for the remnant (S147)

Interaction with molecular clouds is complex and multiple emission components are likely

Detecting a very young SNR will take fortunate nearby event with strong interaction


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