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Pharaohs, Mummies , & Pyramids. Egypt: The Nile Valley. Geography. Located in North Africa Large desert regions Very dry climate Nile River Valley center of civilization. Time Period. People began settling in villages along the Nile around 5000 BCE

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Egypt the nile valley

Pharaohs,

Mummies, &

Pyramids

Egypt: The Nile Valley


Geography
Geography

  • Located in North Africa

  • Large desert regions

  • Very dry climate

  • Nile River Valley center of civilization


Time period
Time Period

  • People began settling in villages along the Nile around 5000 BCE

  • Around 3100 BCE a strong leader united them into a single civilization

  • Historians divide the dynasties that ruled Egypt into three periods

    • Old Kingdom (2650 to 2150)

    • Middle Kingdom (2055 to 1650)

    • New Kingdom (1550 to 1070)

      In between these kingdoms and afterwards Egypt was conquered by other civilizations


Government
Government

  • Led by a pharaoh (like a king)

  • Theocratic (people believed pharaoh was god)

  • Allowed for strong government and massive public projects (e.g. Pyramids) using forced labor


Writing
Writing

  • Hieroglyphics(pictographic writing)

  • Uses pictures/symbols for sounds/words

  • Developed writing to keep accounts of supplies and manage large projects


Religion
Religion

  • Polytheistic (many gods)

  • Pharaoh was a god

  • Sun god was most important

  • One pharaoh was monotheistic (tried to reform the whole country, but failed)

  • Believed in afterlife, judgment day, soul

  • Mummies were a result of the belief in eternal life


Economy
Economy

  • Traded with other countries in Africa, Middle East and around the Mediterranean

  • Exported gold, wheat, barley, and papyrus

  • Imported lumber, minerals, spices, and exotic materials (ivory, leopard skins, etc.)

  • Led to a variety of social classes (see illustration)


Technology
Technology

  • Paper (papyrus)

  • Shaduf (irrigation tool)

  • Make-up (men & women)

  • Clocks

  • Locks

  • Medicine

  • Shipbuilding


Art architecture

Used in temples, tombs, & palaces

Massive public buildings (limestone, granite, sandstone

Private buildings (sun-dried bricks)

Art & architecture



Social culture
Social culture life

  • Various social classes

  • Women had some rights (some even became pharaohs)

    • Could own property

    • Receive inheritance

  • Leisure Activities

    • Music & Dancing

    • Board Games


Military
military life

  • Recruited from general population, led by royalty

  • One way for lower classes to advance in society

  • Armed with bows, arrows, spears, shields (eventually obtained chariots from invaders)


Contribution
contribution life

  • They influence other civilizations like the Greeks and Romans in architecture and religion

  • Paper, medicinal practices, and lighthouses

  • Egyptians invented beer, make-up, and had a game similar to bowling


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