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chemistry. 9.4. Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases.

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Chemistry

chemistry


Naming and writing formulas for acids and bases

9.4

Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases

  • Some ants can give painful stings when threatened or disturbed. Certain ant species called formicines have poison glands that produce venom containing formic acid. You will learn the names and formulas of some important acids such as formic acid.


Naming acids

9.4

Naming Acids

  • Naming Acids

    • What are the three rules for naming acids?


Naming acids1

9.4

Naming Acids

  • An acid is a compound that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. Acids have various uses.


Naming acids2

9.4

Naming Acids

  • Three rules can help you name an acid with the general formula HnX.

    • When the name of the anion (X) ends in -ide, the acid name begins with the prefix hydro-. The stem of the anion has the suffix -ic and is followed by the word acid.


Naming acids3

9.4

Naming Acids

  • When the anion name ends in -ite, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix -ous, followed by the word acid.


Naming acids4

9.4

Naming Acids

  • When the anion name ends in -ate, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix -ic followed by the word acid.


Naming acids5

9.4

Naming Acids

  • A Summary of the Three Rules for Naming Acids.


Writing formulas for acids

9.4

Writing Formulas for Acids

  • Writing Formulas for Acids

    • How are the formulas of acids determined?


Writing formulas for acids1

9.4

Writing Formulas for Acids

  • Use the rules for writing the names of acids in reverse to write the formulas for acids.

    • What is the formula for hydrobromic acid? Following Rule 1, hydrobromic acid (hydro- prefix and -ic suffix) must be a combination of hydrogen ion (H+) and bromide ion (Br–). The formula of hydrobromic acid is HBr.


Writing formulas for acids2

9.4

Writing Formulas for Acids


Practice formulas for acids

HNO2

HCN

Nitrous acid

Hydrocyanic acid

Practice– Formulas for acids


Names and formulas for bases

9.4

Names and Formulas for Bases

  • Names and Formulas for Bases

    • How are bases named?


Names and formulas for bases1

9.4

Names and Formulas for Bases

  • Bases are named in the same way as other ionic compounds—the name of the cation is followed by the name of the anion.

    • For example, aluminum hydroxide consists of the aluminum cation (Al3+) and the hydroxide anion (OH–). The formula for aluminum hydroxide is Al(OH)3.


Names and formulas for bases2

9.4

Names and Formulas for Bases

  • Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a base that is used to make paper.


Names and formulas for bases3

9.4

Names and Formulas for Bases

  • Cleaners and soap contain sodium hydroxide.


Practice formulas for bases

LiOH

Mg(OH)2

Lithium hydroxide

Magnesium hydroxide

Practice formulas for bases


Section assessment

Section Assessment

  • Test yourself on the concepts in Section 9.4.


9 4 section quiz

9.4 Section Quiz

  • 1.The name for H2S(aq) is

    • hydrosulfuric acid.

    • sulfuric acid.

    • sulfurous acid.

    • hydrosulfurous acid.


9 4 section quiz1

9.4 Section Quiz

  • 2.The chemical formula for chlorous acid is

    • HClO2.

    • HClO3.

    • HClO4.

    • HCl.


9 4 section quiz2

9.4 Section Quiz

  • 3.The correct chemical name for NH4OH is

    • nitrogen tetrahydrogen hydroxide.

    • nitrogen pentahydrogen oxide.

    • ammonium oxyhydride.

    • ammonium hydroxide.


End of show

END OF SHOW


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