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Chapter 11 Section 1. The Civil War Begins. The secession of Southern states cause the North and South to take up arms. NEXT. Lincoln’s journey from IL to D.C.

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Chapter 11 Section 1

The Civil War Begins

The secession of Southern states cause the North and South to take up arms.


Lincoln s journey from il to d c
Lincoln’s journey from IL to D.C.

Lincoln left his home in Springfield, IL in February of 1861, telling the townspeople who gathered to see him off that he didn’t know when or if he’d ever return. The last stage of his journey, Washington D.C., was in slave territory. In Harrisburg, PA, Lincoln received word that an assassination plot was afoot and that he would be killed if he passed through Baltimore, MD the following day. So Lincoln bypassed Baltimore and went straight to D.C., disguised by wearing a felt hat in place of his usual top hat. This action created an undignified and cowardly picture of Lincoln to his enemies, who in political cartoons, depicted him sneaking into Washington disguised in a Scottish plaid costume.



The Civil War Begins

Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter

  • Fort Sumter

  • Confederate soldiers take over government and military instillations in the South; 7 states have seceded

  • Fort Sumter in the Charleston, SC harbor remains in Union control

  • 2/61: Confeds demand control of the fort, or threaten attack

  • Fort supplies and food will last only 6 weeks

  • Lincoln’s Dilemma

  • Reinforcing the fort by force would be an act of war, may encourage VA to secede and Britain to help South

  • Evacuating the fort would show weakness, anger Repubs, and endanger the Union

Continued . . .


The fall of fort sumter
The Fall of Fort Sumter



The Civil War Begins

Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter

  • First Shots

  • Lincoln does not reinforce or evacuate, just sends food

  • For South, no action would damage legitimacy of the Confederacy

  • Jefferson Davis chooses to turn a peaceful secession into war; fires on Fort 4/12/61

  • Virginia Secedes

  • Fall of Fort Sumter unites the North; volunteers rush to enlist

  • VA unwilling to fight against the South; secedes from the Union; anti-slavery western counties secede from VA (West VA)

  • AK, TN, NC secede; border states (MD, DE, KY, MO) remain neutral




American Expect a Short War

Union and Confederate Strategies

• Union advantages: # of soldiers, industry, food, railroads

• Confed advantages: cotton profits, generals, motivation, home-court

• Anaconda Plan: 3-pronged Union strategy to win the war

1) blockade Southern ports

2) divide Confederacy in two in the west

3) capture Richmond, VA (Confed capital)

• Confederate strategy: play defense, invade the North if the opportunity arises

Bull Run

• First large-scale battle, near D.C.; Confeds win

• General Thomas J. Jackson nicknamed Stonewall Jackson for standing firm in battle


The anaconda plan
The Anaconda Plan

The strategy was devised to weaken the south without invading it. It was nicknamed the Anaconda Plan because it would strangle the Confederacy the way the anaconda snake constricts its victim. Lincoln had doubts about the plan, and rather than wait for a slow strangulation of the Confederacy to occur, he chose to do battle with the Confederacy in ground campaigns. Yet elements of the Anaconda Plan, such as the naval blockade, did become a reality.

Battle of bull run
Battle of Bull Run

General Barnard Bee, trying to rally the men on the Confederate side shouted, “Look, there is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Rally behind him”. Bee was killed a little while later. From that day on, Thomas Jackson was known as Stonewall Jackson.



Union Armies in the West

  • Protecting Washington, D.C.

  • After Bull Run, Lincoln calls for 1 million additional soldiers

  • Appoints General George McClellan to lead Army of the Potomac

  • Institutes the nation’s first income tax

  • Forts Henry and Donelson

  • General Ulysses S. Grant—bravetough, decisive commander in the west

  • 2/62: Grant captures Confed Forts Henry, Donelson in TN

  • Shiloh

  • 3/62: Confed troops surprise Union soldiers at ShilohChurch in TN

  • Grant counterattacks; Confeds retreat; 24,000 dead, wounded

  • Shiloh lessons learned: this will be a long, bloody war; Confeds are vulnerable in the west


General ulysses s grant
General Ulysses S. Grant

The great Union General’s name had originally been Hiram Ulysses, but when he entered West Point in 1839, he found his name had been recorded incorrectly. It was easier for Grant to accept the mistake than for the army to correct its error. Grant had served in the MX War with distinction, but after the war he was stationed at lonely posts in the West. There, the boredom and separation from his wife drove him to drink, and to resign from the army. After that, he tried to be a farmer and a storekeeper, but failed at everything he did…until the Civil War. Grant would go on to serve as President from 1869-1877 in a scandal-plagued administration.



A Revolution in Warfare Technology

  • The Ironclads

  • Destroy wooden ships, repel cannon fire, resist burning

  • 3/62: The North’s Monitor& the South’s Merrimack fight a legendary duel to a draw

  • The era of wooden ships in battle was over…development of early submarines

  • New Weapons and Style of Fighting

  • Rifles and minie balls, the Gatling gun

  • Grenades, land mines, airballoons, ambulance corps, torpedoes

  • Beginning of trench warfare




The War for the Capitals

  • Richmond

  • Lincoln and the North’s public mock General McClellan’s extreme cautiousness/reluctance to fight

  • On the way to Richmond, McClellan encounter’s GeneralRobert E . Lee’s forces

  • McClellan retreats after losing the Seven Days’ Battles to Lee

  • Antietam

  • Lee moves towards Washington D.C.

  • Lee faces McClellan in the town of Antietam in MD

  • Bloodiest battle in American history (26,000 dead)

    • More than the War of 1812 and MX War combined

    • Confeds lose ¼ of its army

  • McClellan fails to pursue the damaged Confed. army that could have ended the Civil War

  • Lincoln fires McClellan


Chapter 11 Section 2

The Politics of War

By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln made slavery the focus of the war.


General ambrose burnside
General Ambrose Burnside

After Lincoln fired General McClellan, he turned to Ambrose Burnside to lead the Union forces. Burnside cultivated a unique growth of facial hair in a style that came to be known as “burnsides” in his honor. By a reversal of syllables, it became known as “sideburns”.



The Politics of War

Britain Remains Neutral

Economic Factors

• Britain no longer dependent on the South for cotton

• New sources of cotton in Egypt and India

• Northern wheat and corn just as impt. as cotton

The Trent Affair

• Confederates sent two diplomats to Britain to gain support aboard the ship the Trent

• American warship stops the ship and arrests the two men

• British threaten war against the Union

• Lincoln releases the men to avoid war

Continued . . .




Proclaiming Emancipation

  • Lincoln’s View of Slavery

  • Disliked slavery, but felt the fed gov’t didn’t have power to abolish it in the existing slave states

  • Believes the Civil War’s main objective is to save the Union

  • Lincoln evolves as the war goes on

  • Ending slavery became a weapon of war

    • Emancipation would discourage the strongly anti-slavery Brits from helping Confeds

  • Emancipation Proclamation

  • Emancipation Proclamation: issued 1/1/63

  • Only applies to areas behind Confederate lines

  • Does not apply to Southern territory already occupied by the Union, or to the border states




continuedProclaiming Emancipation

  • Reactions to the Proclamation

  • For the North, it gave the war a moral purpose

  • Free blacks can now enlist in the army

  • Northern Democrats believe it will prolong the war by antagonizing the South

  • Confederates outraged; more determined to win

Continued . . .




Both Sides Face Political Problems

  • Northern Dissent

  • In MD, Lincoln suspends habeas corpus:a court order that requires authorities to bring a person held in jail before the court to determine why they are being jailed

  • Arrest Copperheads:Northern Democrats who advocated peace with the South

  • Jefferson Davis denounces Lincoln’s actions, then suspends habeas corpus himself

  • Conscription

  • Both sides enact conscription: draft forcing service

  • Both sides allow men to pay $300 for a substitute

  • However, very few members of the army were draftees (about 10% on both sides)




continuedBoth Sides Face Political Problems

  • Draft Riots

  • Summer 1863, New York City

  • Poor white workers, especially Irish immigrants, protest

  • Believe it’s unfair that they should have to fight a war to free slaves who will compete with their jobs

  • When they begin to be drafted, mobs rampage through the city

  • The rioters attack:

    • Draft offices

    • Police

    • Republicans

    • Anti-slavery leaders

    • The rich

    • African Americans

  • Federal troops end the riots

  • 100 dead

Continued . . .


Chapter 11 Section 3

Life During Wartime

The Civil War brought about dramatic social and economic changes in American society.




Life During Wartime

African Americans Fight For Freedom

  • African American Soldiers

  • By war’s end, they would make up 10% of the Union army

  • Still suffered discrimination; segregated units commanded by white officers

  • Earn less than white soldiers

  • Many POWs were executed by Confeds on the spot

    • Massacre at Fort Pillow in TN: 200 killed

Slave Resistance in the Confederacy

• Slaves seek freedom as Union army push into Confed. territory

• Slaves on plantations engage in sabotage

• Slave resistance gradually weakens plantation system

--By 1864, many Confeds realize that slavery is nearing the end.


The 54 th massachusetts
The 54th Massachusetts

The Fifty-fourth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment was the first military unit consisting of black soldiers to be raised in the North during the Civil War. Col. Robert Gould Shaw, the 25 year old son of very wealthy abolitionist parents, was chosen to command. On May 28, the well equipped and drilled 54th paraded through the streets of Boston and then boarded ships bound for the coast of South Carolina on July 18 came the supreme test of the courage and valor of the black soldiers; they were chosen to lead the assault on Fort Wagner, a Confederate fort on Morris Island at Charleston. More than a century after the war the Fifty-fourth remains the most famous black regiment of the war, due largely to the popularity of the movie "Glory", which recounts the story of the regiment prior to and including the attack on Battery Wagner.



The War Affects Regional Economies

  • Southern Economic Decline

  • Southern food shortages

    • Loss of men to the army

    • Union occupation of farm areas

    • Loss of slaves

  • Food prices skyrocket

  • Inflation and currency chaos

  • Northern Economic Growth

  • • Army need for war supplies leads to econ boom

  • • Women obtain gov’t jobs for the first time, but earn less than men

  • • War profiteering, corruption rampant

    • Contractors supply uniforms and blankets made of “shoddy”: fibers made from rags

Continued . . .




Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides

Lives on the Line

• Poor living conditions, diet, medical care

• Lack of garbage disposal and bathrooms

• Disease (dysentery, typhoid, malaria) rampant

• Barely edible food

  • Medicine

  • United States Sanitary Commission formed to improve hygiene

    • Recruits and trains nurses

    • 3000 serve for the Union

  • Dorothea Dix becomes superintendent of woman nurses

  • Clara Barton known as “angel of the battlefield” for caring for the sick and wounded

Continued . . .




continuedSoldiers Suffer on Both Sides

  • Medicine

  • Surgeons never sterilize instruments; effects of bacteria unknown at the time

  • Blood typing, X-rays, antibiotics non-existent

  • Anesthetics were in its infancy

    • Ether or chloroform

Continued . . .




continuedSoldiers Suffer on Both Sides

  • Prisons

  • The worst Confederate camp was Andersonville, GA

    • 33,000 men in overcrowded camp

    • No shelter

    • Drank from same stream that was their sewer

    • 1/3 died

  • Prison camps in the North only slightly better

  • 15% of Union prisoners VS. 12% of Confed prisoners died


Chapter 11 Section 4

The North Takes Charge

Key victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg helped the Union wear down the Confederacy.


Stonewall jackson shot by his own troops
Stonewall Jackson shot by his own troops

When Jackson was accidentally shot by his own troops on this day in 1863, his arm was amputated to save his life. His chaplain couldn’t bear to see the general’s arm thrown on a pile of amputated limbs from the Battle of Chancellorsville, so he gave the arm a Christian burial in a private cemetery nearby.



The North Takes Charge

1863: The War rages on


• Lee decides to invade the North; pushes into PA

• Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) = the most decisive battle of the war

• Union forces win 3 days of intense fighting

• Total casualties = 30%

--Union losses = 23,000 killed or wounded

--Confed losses = 28,000 killed or wounded

• Lee gives up hope of invading North; the Confederacy would never recover

  • Vicksburg

  • Grant continues western campaign

  • Vicksburg, MS and Port Hudson, LA = the only two holdouts preventing the Union from taking control of the MS River

  • Starving Confeds surrender both positions; the Confederacy was finally cut in two


Gettysburg address
Gettysburg Address

"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."



The Confederacy Wears Down

  • Confederate Morale Down

  • After Gettysburg and Vicksburg, people all over the South begin to openly call for an end to war

  • Soldiers begin to desert

  • Confed gov’t ineffective; loose confederacy led to disagreements

  • Grant Appoints Sherman

  • 3/64: Lincoln appoints Grant commander of all Union forces

  • Grant appoints William Tecumseh Sherman commander of western forces

  • Both men believe in “total war”: fighting not only the armies and gov’t, but also the citizens




continuedThe Confederacy Wears Down

  • Grant vs. Lee…Sherman Marches to the Sea

  • May-June 1864

  • - Grant loses 60,000 men

  • - Lee loses 30,000 men

  • - Union can replace them; Confeds cannot

  • Sherman marches southeast through GA

    • Creates a path of destruction (ie: total war)

    • Burns every home/building in its path

    • Burns Atlanta to the ground

    • Sets out towards the coast

  • Sherman’s troops turn North to meet up with Grant

    • Behind were 25,000 slaves seeking freedom

Continued . . .


Sherman s march
Sherman’s March

...As night drew its sable curtains around us, the heavens from every point were lit up with flames from burning buildings. Dinnerless and supperless as we were, it was nothing in comparison with the fear of being driven out homeless to the dreary woods. Nothing to eat!



continuedThe Confederacy Wears Down

  • Surrender at Appomattox

  • By March 1865, it’s clear the end of Confed. near

  • - Grant approaching Richmond, VA from west

  • - Sherman approaching Richmond from the south

  • - Union can replace them; Confeds cannot

  • President Jefferson Davis and his gov’t leave the capital

  • Lee and Grant meet to arrange Confed surrender in a courthouse in the VA village Appomattox

  • April 9, 1865: the Civil War ends

Continued . . .


Chapter 11 Section 5

The Legacy of the War

The Civil War settled long-standing disputes over state’s rights and slavery. The War caused great political, economic, technological, and social change.




The War Changes the Nation

  • Political Changes

  • The Federal gov’t assumed supreme authority/power

    • No longer is secession ever discussed

  • States’ rights weakened, but does not disappear

  • Income tax, paper currency, conscription made the federal gov’t directly involved in people’s lives

  • Economic Changes

  • Industry increases; national railroad system built

  • National Bank Act sets up a series of federal banks

  • Northern industry increased; large-scale agriculture begins

  • The war destroyed southern slave-based economy

  • Sherman’s march wiped out econ. potential for decades




continuedThe War Changes the Nation

  • Costs of the War

  • Great human cost

  • - 360,000 Union soldiers vs. 275,000 Confed soldiers died

  • - 275,000 Union soldiers vs. 225,000 Confed soldiers wounded

  • - 2.4 million men served in the war…lives disrupted

  • Union and Confeds spent $3.3 billion

    • Twice what the gov’t spent the previous 80 years

    • War debt and veterans’ pensions consume federal budget for decades

Continued . . .




The War Changes Lives

  • New Birth of Freedom

  • Emancipation Proclamation had only freed slavery in the states that seceded

    • What about the border states where slavery was still legal?

  • 13th Amendment passed

    • “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States”.





continuedThe War Changes Lives

  • Assassination of Lincoln

  • April 14, 1865: four days after Lee surrendered

  • Lincoln and his wife went to Ford’s Theatre in Washington to see a comedic play called Our American Cousin

  • John Wilkes Booth(26 yr. old actor and Southern sympathizer) shoots Lincoln in the back of the head and jumps from the balcony to the stage

  • Breaks his leg and shouts “Sic semper tyrannis” (Death to Tyrants)… “The South has been avenged”.

  • Booth escapes the theatre and is caught by Union troops in a VA barn and shot.

  • Lincoln’s funeral train travels for 14 days from D.C. to his hometown in Springfield, IL…7 million view the funeral procession

  • The Conspirator

Continued . . .