The muscular system
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The Muscular system. What is a muscle? There are 2 main kinds of muscle: Skeletal – muscle found surrounding our skeleton. We can consciously control skeletal muscle, which allows us to move.

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The Muscular system

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The muscular system

The Muscularsystem


The muscular system

What is a muscle?

There are 2 main kinds of muscle:

  • Skeletal – muscle found surrounding our skeleton. We can consciously control skeletal muscle, which allows us to move.

  • Smooth – muscle found in our arteries and intestines, we can’t consciously control smooth muscle.

    In P.E. we look mainly at Skeletal Muscle


The muscular system

Who’s got the biggest guns?

The Bicepbends the arm at the elbow, bending is called Flexion and the Tricepdoes the opposite, itstraightens the elbow, straightening is called Extension.

Important: Skeletal Muscle groups, work in pairs! One muscle group moves a joint in one direction & the other will move the joint in the opposite direction.


Agonist antagonist

Agonist & Antagonist

The bicep and tricep muscle groups are the pair that move the elbow joint.

When the prime mover of the elbow joint is biceps the elbow bends or flexes.

The prime mover of any joint is called the Agonist. In this example biceps is the agonist.

For this to happen triceps must relax & stretch to allow the bicep to work & the elbow to bend. The relaxing muscle is called the Antagonist. Triceps in this case is the antagonist.


Agonist antagonist1

Agonist & Antagonist

If we change the movement, what happens?

If the prime mover of the elbow joint is now triceps the elbow will straighten or extend.

Remember, the prime mover of any joint is called the Agonist. This time the agonist is triceps.

For this to happen biceps must relax & stretch to allow the triceps to work. This time the relaxing muscle orAntagonist is biceps.


The muscular system

‘Lean on me’

The dominating muscle of the shoulder is the Deltoid.

The Deltoid has 3 different parts.

1. Anterior aspect

2. Medial aspect

3. Posterior aspect

The deltoid muscle allows lots of different movements at the shoulder joint. Flexion, extension, Circumduction, rotation, etc etc.


The muscular system

We have 3 main back muscles:

  • The Trapeziusis the muscle that rugby props develop and look like ‘no necks’. They raise the head.

  • The Latissimus Dorsiare referred to as ‘the Wings’ in body building. They lower the arms at the shoulder.

  • The Erector Spinae are not shown on the diagram. They run up the spine on either side. As the name suggests they straighten the back.


The muscular system

The trunk

There are a few groups that make up the abdominal family. The 2 we can see are Rectus Abdominus(the 6 pack ) & theExternal Obliques. The Abs flex & rotate our trunk.

The Pectoralisare the chest ‘Gorilla’ muscles of the human body. The Pecs push our arms forward at the shoulder.


The muscular system

Lance Armstrong's cycling muscles

Many of the muscles in the legs have individual names but we will refer to them by their group names

  • The Hamstrings bend the knee (knee flexion) hidden behind the Quads see next slide.

  • Quadricepsstraighten the knee (knee extension)

  • Hip Flexorsare the muscles that place your thigh parallel to the ground, they bend the leg at the hip (hip flexion)

  • The Gluteus muscles straighten the leg at the hip

    (hip extension) hidden behind the hip flexors see next slide.

Tibialis Anterior is the muscle you use to lift your toes


The muscular system

Soleusis underneath Gastrocnemius. They are our calf muscles.Both muscles are used when you tap your toes. They work in a pair with tibialis anterior

The Glutealsare the muscles that form your bum.

They are used to straighten the leg at the hip (hip extension), when you stand up from sitting.


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