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‘ M issing’ Dimensions of Poverty and Gender. Sanjeewanie Kariyawasam Centre for Poverty Analysis (CEPA). Introduction. Poverty is thought to be a multidimensional phenomenon But focus often only on consumption/income dimensions because of lack of survey data

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M issing dimensions of poverty and gender l.jpg

Missing’ Dimensions of Poverty and Gender

Sanjeewanie Kariyawasam

Centre for Poverty Analysis (CEPA)


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Poverty is thought to be a multidimensional phenomenon

  • But focus often only on consumption/income dimensions because of lack of survey data

  • Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) on the ‘missing dimensions of poverty’ study

    • Employment Quality, Empowerment, Dignity, Physical Safety, Subjective and Psychological Wellbeing

  • Survey Module was piloted in Badulla District


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Study Frame

  • Methodology

    • Stratified random sample

    • Sample size 229 (55% of respondents are females)

    • For this study, unit of analysis is respondent

    • Odds ratio analysis and factor analysis to construct deprivation

  • Focus - Is there a gender difference in terms of:

    • Employment Quality

      • Having a good and decent job is associated with being out of poverty

      • Indicators: Protection, Job satisfaction, Discouraged employment

    • Subjective and Psychological Wellbeing

      • Not a dimension of poverty, but the expected end-result of development

      • Indicators: Subjective wellbeing – happiness and life satisfaction

        Psychological wellbeing – meaning in life, autonomy, competence, relatedness


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Employment Quality; Protection

  • Substantially more men are employed than women, though women are slightly better educated – in line with LFS data

  • Low protection (60% deprived) from employment due to informality but study finds no gender difference


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Employment Quality; Job satisfaction

84% are dissatisfied about their job

  • two stage composite index, deprived on one or more indicators

  • More females report experiencing unfair treatment at work than males


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    Employment Quality; Discouraged employment

    • There is a gender dimension in relation to why people are not employed

    • \

    • Females are not working mainly due to child care and household work

      • but are they interested but discouraged from looking for work?


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    Subjective Wellbeing

    • High levels of reporting of overall happiness across both genders

      • 90% are very happy or fairly happy

      • Among women lack of happiness is linked to low socioeconomic wellbeing

    • High levels of life satisfaction across both genders

      • Over 90% are satisfied with life overall, food, local security, family, dignity, free choice, ability to help others and religion

      • More women than men are not satisfied with their ability to exercise free choice

      • Women who are not working are less satisfied about health, education, and work


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    Psychological Wellbeing

    • 75% of respondents have meaning in their life

      • Males less positive about having clear meaning in life, satisfactory meaning and clear sense of what gives meaning to life

      • Higher educational attainments associated with having clear meaning of life irrespective of gender

    • 84% of respondents have autonomy

      • 10% of both genders said they are not free to decide how to lead own life

      • Males are less positive about freedom to express ideas and opinions

    • 93% of respondents are positive about their competence

      • Males less likely to say that others tell them that they are capable and feel a sense of accomplishment

      • Females are less likely to say that they feel very capable

    • 82% of respondents feel relatedness

      • More males among those who said deprived


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    Conclusion

    • Deprivation in terms of employment quality

      • Gender aspects on discouraged employment only

    • However, there are high levels of subjective and psychological wellbeing

      • Gender aspects in autonomy, competence and life satisfaction with work, education etc

        Issues for further consideration

    • Implications for using a single indicator or a dimension to compute generalised‘deprivation’

    • Study findings generalisable to Badulla



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