Network time protocol
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Network Time Protocol. Objectives to learn how to setup ntp Contents The NTP Server What is NTP? Download and Install The NTP Package The /etc/ntp.conf File How To Get NTP Started Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly. What is NTP?. Network Time Protocol

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Network Time Protocol

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Network time protocol

Network Time Protocol

  • Objectives

    • to learn how to setup ntp

  • Contents

    • The NTP Server

    • What is NTP?

    • Download and Install The NTP Package

    • The /etc/ntp.conf File

    • How To Get NTP Started

    • Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly


What is ntp

What is NTP?

  • Network Time Protocol

    • Used to keep clock’s syncronized within your nodes

    • Important for logservers and logfiles

    • Transaction servers

    • Various applications, position system,mobilephones like GSM,transaction systems

    • Time critical operations that needed to be syncronized

  • Stratum levels

    • Level 1 most accurate, directly connected to reference clock

    • Level 2 next accurate,connected to more than one Level 1

    • Lower levels is connected to only one Level 1 or to Level 2

  • DCF77 receiver’s, LW radio carriers as reference

    • Available at very low price from various places

  • GSM time reference

    • Uses GPS satellites as timebase, all GPS satellites have atomic clocks

  • Atomic clock

    • Usally based on rugby or cesium Atomic Clock, based on atomic oscillations

    • Proposed 1943, first built 1949, practical 1955

  • Important atomic clock servers that supports NTP

    http://ntp.isc.org/bin/view/Servers/WebHome

    http://www.ntp.org/

    http://ntp.isc.org/bin/view/Servers/StratumOneTimeServers


Download and install the ntp tar boll

Download and Install The NTP tar-boll

  • Check if NTP is there,remove if it is there, keep yast

  • NTP comes from ISC Internet Systems Consortium

    • http://ntp.isc.org/bin/view/Main/SoftwareDownloads

  • Download and unzip the tar ball

  • Configure the source package

  • Make the source package and install

#rpm -qa | grep -i ntp

xntp-4.2.0a-35

yast2-ntp-client-2.11.3-3

# rpm –e xntp-4.2.0a-35

# cd /usr/local/src

# wget http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~ntp/ntp_spool/ntp4/snapshots/ntp-dev/2006/01/ntp-dev-4.2.0b-20060115.tar.gz

# tar xvfz ntp-dev-4.2.0b-20060115.tar.gz

# cd ntp-dev-4.2.0b-20060115 ; ./configure

# make && make test && make install


Download and install the ntp rpm package

Download and Install The NTP rpm Package

  • Check if NTP is there, if not then download it

  • Install NTP after it is downloaded

  • NTP is SuSE standard, however it is not preconfigured and started.

  • First time insserv and rcxntpd will open iptables firewall as well, ntp used port 123 UDP

# rpm -qa | grep -i ntp

xntp-4.2.0a-35

yast2-ntp-client-2.11.3-3

# cd /usr/local/src

# wget http://ftp.sunet.se/pub/os/Linux/distributions/suse/suse/i386/9.3/suse/i586/xntp*

# rpm –ivh xntp-4.2.0a-35.i586.rpm

# insserv xntpd

# rcxntpd start


The etc ntp conf file

The /etc/ntp.conf File

  • First we specify the sample servers we're interested in:

    • Servers are used in order, average time can be calculated

  • Then we restrict the type of access you allow these servers

  • Declare the networks this NTP server should serve

  • This NTP server should serve itself unrestricted

server ntp1.gbg.netnod.se # A stratum 1 server

server gps.dix.dk # A stratum 2 server

server clock.isc.org # unknown strata

restrict ntp1.gbg.netnod.se mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery

restrict gps.dix.dk mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery

restrict clock.isc.org mask 255.255.255.255 nomodify notrap noquery

restrict 192.168.0.0 mask 255.255.255.0 notrust nomodify notrap

restrict 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 notrust nomodify notrap

restrict 127.0.0.1


How to get ntp started not rpm

How To Get NTP Started (not RPM)

  • To get NTP configured to start at boot:

  • To start/stop/restart NTP after booting:

  • To see if ntp is running:

  • If you like write your own start stop script and put in runlevel 3 and 5

  • Logging in /var/log/messages

  • Logging in /var/log/ntpd.log

    • Add in /etc/ntp.conf

# echo ”/usr/local/bin/ntpd” >> /etc/init.d/boot.local

# pkill -9 ntpd

# pkill -HUP ntpd

# /usr/local/bin/ntpd

# pgrep ntpd

driftfile /var/lib/ntp/drift/ntp.drift

logfile /var/log/ntp.log


Testing and troubleshooting ntp

Testing And Troubleshooting NTP

  • Verifying NTP is Running

    • you should get a response of plain old process ID numbers

  • Doing An Initial Synchronization against one server

    • First check current idea of time

    • Then syncronize against NTP server

    • Last check that time was adjusted

    • If time it was to big difference in time you might want to set the time as exact you can manually and do the sync again

# pgrep ntpd

# date

Thu Sep 7 00:00:00 PDT 2004

# ntpdate –u ntp.research.gov

Looking for host ntp.research.gov and service ntp

host found : ntp.research.gov

7 Sep 08:03:38 ntpdate[2472]: step time server ntp.research.gov offset 28993.084943 sec

# date

Sep 7 08:03:38 PDT 2004


Determining if ntp is synchronized properly

Determining If NTP Is Synchronized Properly

  • With ntpq command see the servers you sync with

  • Jitter should be less than 100

  • Try to use NTP server close to you with high strata level

# ntpq -p

     remote          refid       st t when poll reach  delay   offset   jitter==============================================================================-jj.cs.umb.edu   gandalf.sigmaso  3 u   95 1024  377  31.681  -18.549    1.572milo.mcs.anl.go  ntp0.mcs.anl.go  2 u  818 1024  125  41.993  -15.264    1.392-mailer1.psc.edu ntp1.usno.navy.  2 u  972 1024  377  38.206   19.589   28.028-dr-zaius.cs.wis ben.cs.wisc.edu  2 u  502 1024  357  55.098    3.979    0.333+taylor.cs.wisc. ben.cs.wisc.edu  2 u  454 1024  347  54.127    3.379    0.047-ntp0.cis.strath harris.cc.strat  3 u  507 1024  377 115.274   -5.025    1.642*clock.via.net   .GPS.            1 u  426 1024  377 107.424   -3.018    2.534ntp1.conectiv.c  0.0.0.0         16 u    - 1024    0   0.000    0.000  4000.00


Your linux ntp clients cannot synchronize properly

Your Linux NTP clients cannot Synchronize Properly

  • Your test show something like this

  • This could be caused by the following

    • Older versions of NTP must have IP addresses, not FDQN

    • A firewall blocking access to your Stratum 1 and 2 NTP servers, port 123 UDP must be opened.

    • NTPd is not running on server or is not syncronized yet

# ntpq -p

     remote           refid      st t when poll reach   delay   offset  jitter

==============================================================================

 LOCAL(0)        LOCAL(0)        10 l    -   64    7    0.000    0.000   0.008

 ntp-cup.externa 0.0.0.0         16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000 4000.00

 snvl-smtp1.trim 0.0.0.0         16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000 4000.00

 nist1.aol-ca.tr 0.0.0.0         16 u    -   64    0    0.000    0.000 4000.00


Configuring cisco router to use an ntp server

Configuring Cisco router To Use An NTP Server

  • Cisco IOS

  • ntp server: Forms a server association with another system.

  • ntp update-calendar: Configures the system to update its hardware clock from the software clock at periodic intervals.

ciscorouter> enable

password: *********

ciscorouter# config t

ciscorouter(config)# ntp update-calendarciscorouter(config)# ntp server 192.168.0.10ciscorouter(config)# ntp server 192.168.1.201ciscorouter(config)# exit

ciscorouter# wr mem


Configuring cisco switch to use an ntp server

Configuring Cisco switch To Use An NTP Server

  • Cisco CATalyst OS

  • ntp server: Forms a server association with another system.

  • set ntp client enable: Activate the NTP client

ciscoswitch> enablepassword: *********ciscoswitch# set ntp client enableciscoswitch# ntp server 192.168.0.10ciscoswitch# ntp server 192.168.1.201

ciscoswitch# exit


Configuring a windows ntp client

Configuring A Windows NTP Client

  • You can add your new NTP server to your Windows client. Here's how:

  • Click on the time at the bottom right hand side of your screen.

  • Click on the "Internet Time" tab of the dialog box

  • Click the check box labeled "Automatically synchronize with an Internet time server" and enter the name or IP address in the box underneath it.

  • Click on the "Update Now" button

    You will get a message saying "Your time has been successfully synchronized" when the operation is complete


Summary

Summary

  • NTP server is adjust time and date on nodes

  • Configuration sit in /etc/ntpd.conf

  • Calibration files sit in /etc/ntpd/

  • Strata levels tells system accuracy

  • Strata level 1 is most accurate

  • Strata level 2 is next accurate

  • Many applications rely on exact time

  • NTPD is the name of client and server demon

  • Show ntp status with ntpq –p

  • Update time manually: ntpdate –u ntp.research.gov

  • Most routers/Switches has NTP timesettings


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