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OPTIMIZING DEFOAMER USAGE IN DRILLING & CEMENTING APPLICATIONS: TECHNOLOGY REVIEW & TESTING METHODOLOGIES. Luciana Bava , Amir Mahmoudkhani, Robert Wilson , Leanne Levy, Patricia De Palma and Henry Masias Atlanta R&D Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Buenos Aires, 7 al 10 de agosto de 2012.

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slide1

OPTIMIZING DEFOAMER USAGE IN DRILLING & CEMENTING APPLICATIONS: TECHNOLOGY REVIEW & TESTING METHODOLOGIES

Luciana Bava, Amir Mahmoudkhani, Robert Wilson, Leanne Levy, Patricia De Palma and Henry Masias

Atlanta R&D Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Buenos Aires, 7 al 10 de agosto de 2012

slide2

Foam Generation

  • Foam is a colloidal dispersion of gas in a liquid or a solid.
  • Pure liquids do not foam
    • Tap water, in spite of being aerated, does not foam
    • Bubbles collapse immediately on the surface
  • To generate foam, it is necessary to have a surface active component that stabilize the inclusion of dissolved and entrained gasses.
slide3

Foaming/Defoaming Systems

Examples of foaming/defoaming systems in upstream Oil & Gas industry under dynamic fluid conditions

slide5

Drilling and Cementing Additives

  • Most common additives used to modify the behavior of drilling and cement systems are surface active molecules that cause the working fluid to foam during mixing
  • Such additives include:
    • Cement: retarders, dispersants, fluid loss control additives, gas migration control agents and ductility improvement additives.
    • Water base drilling muds: salinity chemicals, dispersants, lost circulation materials and gelling agents and viscosifiers

Cement G + Gas Migration Additive Blend, 1800 ikg/m3 - without defoamer (left), with defoamer (right)

slide6

Foam in Drilling and Cementing Operations

  • Excessive slurry foaming can have several undesirable consequences:
    • Loss of hydraulic pressure during pumping can occur owing to cavitation in the mixing system
    • Air entrainment may cause higher than desired slurry densities
    • Air entrainment also increases the risk of gas permeability and of improper wetting and mixing
    • Liquid or Dry Defoamersare used
slide7

Well Cementing – Cement Mixing

Recirculating Centrifugal Pumps

(max 4000 L /min)

Slurry Tubs: 1000 – 8000 L

slide8

Well Cementing – Cement Mixing

Dry Defoamers

Liquid Defoamers

Foam Generation

slide10

Non-Systematic Testing Methods

Blender Foam Test

Sparge Foam Test

Foam Height

  • Simple & inexpensive
  • Good for initial screening
  • Measurements based on foam height
  • May not accurately represent system under study (A vs. B)
  • Single point data
  • Single shear rates and fix mixing time
  • Difficulty in replicating field conditions

A

B

Time

slide11

Modified Blender Test

Mahmoudkhani et al., “An Innovative Approach for Laboratory Evaluation of Defoamers for Oilfield Cementing Applications”, SPE 143825, Brasil Offshore Conference and Exhibition, Brazil, June 2011

slide12

Foam and Entrained Air Test (FEAT)

Ancillary

Gas

DFM

Density & Flow Meter

Data Recording

Temp

Controller

Foam

Cell

Variable Rate

Pump

P

Drain

slide13

Foam and Entrained Air Test (FEAT)

Fluid composition may be altered by addition of chemical components at any point during the test

Data collected every 0.5 second

At precision of 0.00005 g/mL

slide14

Defoamer performance

Blender Test

FEAT Study

This comprehensive study approach (FEAT + Blender) is needed for proper laboratory validation and qualification under simulated field conditions (accounting for different dosage practices, additives, mixing regimes, etc.)

slide16

Dispersant-Salt System

FEAT analysis of silicone and non-silicone chemistries on 4% sodium polynaphthalenesulfonate + 30% salt solution.

slide17

Dispersant-Salt System

Blender foam test data in the dispersant-salt system, 4% sodium polynaphthalenesulfonate + 30% salt solution. All defoamers are dosed at 0.20% BWOC (by weight of cement)

slide18

Latex System

Silicone A

Blank

Non-Silicone D

FEAT analysis of silicone and non-silicone chemistries on latex solution.

slide19

Latex System

Blender foam test data in latex system. All defoamers are dosed at 0.20% BWOC (by weight of cement)

slide20

PVA (fluid loss additive) System

Blender foam test data in latex system. All defoamers are dosed at 0.20% BWOC (by weight of cement)

slide21

Dry vs. Liquid Defoamers

Dry Defoamers

Liquid Defoamers

  • Dry Defoamers are prefer for better stability, ease of handling and storage
  • Dry Defoamers are suitable for harsh climate areas
  • Cannot be used as trimmer, a second (and liquid) defoamer is required
slide22

High Surface Area Solids

High adsorption

Slow / incomplete release

Improved / Fast Release Dry Defoamers

Conventional Dry Defoamers (silica)

Adsorption

Release

Improved / Fast Release Dry Defoamers

Substrate

Defoamer

slide23

Fast Release vs. Conventional Dry Defoamers

FR Dry: fast release dry defoamer

Dry: conventional dry defoamers

Liq: liquid defoamer

  • Fast Release Dry Defoamers:
  • Outperform conventional Dry Defoamers with a performance level comparable to Liquid Defoamers
  • Reach maximum performance at lower dosages
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