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Climate Change Mitigation through Technology Innovations in Agriculture. Bettina Hedden-Dunkhorst and Paul Vlek Center for Development Research, University of Bonn. Outline. 1 Background 2 Technology Development in Agriculture 3 New Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation

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climate change mitigation through technology innovations in agriculture

Climate Change Mitigation through Technology Innovations in Agriculture

Bettina Hedden-Dunkhorst

and Paul Vlek

Center for Development Research,

University of Bonn

outline
Outline

1 Background

2 Technology Development in Agriculture

3 New Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation

4 Adoption Constraints

5 Suggestions for Policies and Instruments

background
Background
  • Agriculture causes about 25 % global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, 65 % of CH4, and 90 % of N2O emissions.
  • GWP: CH4, – 21times higher than CO2; N2O – 310 times higher;
    • Largest source of emissions – transformation of forest to agricultural land
  • But, agriculture is also affected by climate change
    • through increased climate variability
  • (Modest) mitigation options are available that could result in win-win solutions
  • Productivity increases are necessary to guarantee adoption
technology development in agriculture
Technology Development in Agriculture
  • Research
    • Scale:
      • International (16 IARCs - CGIAR)
      • National (NARS)
      • Local (NGOs, local knowledge)
    • Policy directions for research:
      • Economic policies
        • Trade : export crops
      • Social policies
        • Appropriate technologies, low input technologies
      • Environmental policies
        • Reduced GHG emissions, anti soil erosion technologies, water saving technologies
slide5
Focus of Research:
      • still top down
      • but more focus on participatory approaches
  • Capacity for Manufacturing or Multiplication of Technology
    • Examples
      • Mulching machine (Eastern Amazon Region)
      • Seed multiplication (Zimbabwe)
new agricultural technologies for climate change mitigation rice wheat systems
New Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Rice-Wheat Systems
  • 24-27 million ha in South and East Asia
  • Rice – flooded fields; Wheat well-drained soils;
  • Rice:
    • Emissions:
      • methane and nitrous oxide

(carbon dioxide – straw burning)

    • Mitigation strategies:
      • proper management of organic inputs
      • temporary (mid-season) field drainage
      • direct seeding (-18% CH4)
slide7
Wheat
    • Emissions: nitrous oxide (emitted after fertilization, irrigation and heavy rains or during fallow periods)
    • Mitigation strategies:
      • Emissions less sensitive to

management practices

  • Problem:
    • Antagonism between methane and nitrous oxide emissions, hence targeting one gas alone is inappropriate.
new agricultural technologies for climate change mitigation pastoral ecosystems of the tropics
New Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Pastoral Ecosystems of the Tropics
  • Worldwide grazing land covers ¼ of earth‘s land surface - twice the area under crops
  • Savannas: greatest storage capacity for belowground carbon
  • Soil carbon losses through: land conversion (pasture – crop land); grazing management
  • Methane emission: derive from grazing animals
  • Nitrous oxide emissions (low in developing countries): fertilizer use, land conversion, manure application
slide9
Pastoral lands will lose above and belowground C when they become drier due to climate change.
  • Mitigating strategies - Carbon dioxide

Improved grazing management (0.5 t C ha-1)

      • Reduction in grazing intensity

and biomass burning

      • Improvement of degraded land
      • Reduction of soil erosion
      • Changes in species mix to deep-root grasses
      • (Substitution of renewable biological products for fossil fuels – commercial ranches LA)
slide10
Implementation Requirements
    • Policies:
      • Government regulations, taxes, subsidies
    • Incentives for Carbon market development:
      • Strengthen institutional linkages between countries selling/buying
      • Strengthen pastoral networks of communication
      • Information through extension services
      • Functioning and accountable community governance structures
      • Monitoring systems for carbon stocks
new agricultural technologies for climate change mitigation other systems
New Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Other Systems
  • Alternatives to Slash and Burn
    • Managed forests
    • Agroforestry
  • Wheat, Maize, Soybean, etc.
    • No-tillage (accumulation of soil Carbon, less fossil fuel use)
    • Reduced N fertilization
adoption constraints farmers perspective
Adoption Constraints: Farmers Perspective
  • Lack of:
    • Information
    • Capital
    • Transportation
    • Incentives (low potential to increased returns)
  • Temporary land tenure and water rights
  • Unreliable supplies
  • Risk aversion and vulnerability of farmers
suggestions for policies and instruments
Suggestions for Policies and Instruments

Policies

Instruments

Rural poverty

reduction

Payments for

environmental services,

provide market

opportunities

Information

and

Education

Media support,

free education

Property

rights

Legal instruments:

contract enforcement

  • Policy coordination
  • and linking by sector
  • (environmental, agricultural)
  • and level
  • (national, local)

Participation in

policy design,

subsidiarity,

decentralisation

slide14

Policies

Instruments

Research

Targeted

funding

  • International Level

Technology

exchange

Enabling environment:

patents,

technology advice

Information

Generation of data base

and dissemination

of findings

Trade

Enabling environment:

WTO negotiations,

labeling

(climate change

mitigation)

on balance
On Balance …
  • Agricultural technologies for modest climate change mitigation exist.
  • More needs to be known about their effects and interactions (all GHG) under different conditions.
  • Mechanisms to support technology adoption need to be developed.
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