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CLS 423 Clinical Immunohematology II. Choosing Appropriate Blood Components and Derivatives. For each case, decide which blood component or derivative would be most appropriate to transfuse. Then select the best product from the available inventory. Case One.

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choosing appropriate blood components and derivatives

CLS 423 Clinical Immunohematology II

Choosing Appropriate Blood Components and Derivatives

For each case, decide which blood component or derivative would be most appropriate to transfuse.

Then select the best product from the available inventory.

case one
Case One
  • Sam is being treated for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.
  • Below are the results from this morning’s CBC:
    • WBC 4.0 K/µL
    • RBC 2.64 M/µL
    • Hgb 6.8 g/dL
    • Hct 21%
    • Plt – 133 K/µL
based on the cbc results which of the following components would be appropriate to transfuse to sam
Based on the CBC results, which of the following components would be appropriate to transfuse to Sam?
  • Click on the box in front of your choice:
    • Granulocytes
    • FFP
    • Packed RBCs
    • Platelet Concentrates
granulocytes
Granulocytes
  • Not indicated in Sam’s case.
    • Patient is not neutropenic
    • History does not indicate that the patient has an infection.
  • Please choose another component:
    • FFP
    • Packed RBCs
    • Platelet Concentrates
slide5
FFP
  • There have been no coagulation tests ordered; there is no indication for plasma transfusion in this case.
  • Please choose another component:
    • Granulocytes
    • Packed RBCs
    • Platelet Concentrates
platelet concentrates
Platelet Concentrates
  • Sam’s platelet count is adequate.
    • Transfusion is usually not indicated unless the platelet count is <10 K/µL in a nonsurgical patient.
  • Please choose another component:
    • Granulocytes
    • FFP
    • Packed RBCs
packed rbcs
Packed RBCs
  • Correct!
  • Sam has a low hemoglobin and would benefit from a RBC transfusion.
  • Sam’s Type and Screen results are:
    • A Rh Positive
    • Antibody screen: Negative using the gel method
which of these packed rbc units would be compatible with sam
Which of these packed RBC units would be compatible with Sam?
  • O Rh Positive
  • A Rh Negative
  • AB Rh Negative
  • B Rh Positive
  • Either O Rh Positive or A Rh Negative packed RBCs are group compatible with Sam’s A Rh Positive RBCs.
which of the following attributes should be considered for sam s rbcs
Which of the following attributes should be considered for Sam’s RBCs?
  • Irradiation
  • Leukoreduction
  • Washed
  • Patient’s with Hodgkin’s Disease have a high risk of Transfusion Associated - Graft vs. Host Disease and should get irradiated cellular products.
  • There is a strong chance that Sam will receive multiple transfusions, so leukoreduced units may be beneficial in preventing the formation of HLA antibodies and the complications associated with those antibodies.
case two
Case Two
  • Jill is having cardiac bypass graft surgery this afternoon.
  • These are her morning CBC results:
    • WBC 6.2 K/µL
    • RBC 3.85 K/µL
    • Hgb 12.6 g/dL
    • Hct 37%
    • Plt 40 K/µL
  • These are her Type and Screen results:
    • O Rh Negative
    • Antibody screen negative with tube (PEG) method
which of these components should be transfused in order to prepare jill for surgery
Which of these components should be transfused in order to prepare Jill for surgery?
  • Cryoprecipitate
  • FFP
  • Packed RBCs
  • Platelet Concentrates
cryo and ffp
Cryo and FFP
  • There is no indication that any coagulation factors are low and in need of replacement.
  • Please select a different component:
    • Packed RBCs
    • Platelet Concentrates
packed rbcs1
Packed RBCs
  • Jill’s hemoglobin is acceptable. No RBC transfusion is necessary.
  • Please select a different component:
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • FFP
    • Platelet Concentrates
platelet concentrates1
Platelet Concentrates
  • Jill’s platelet count is <50,000/µL. Platelet transfusion may be necessary to raise her count before proceeding with surgery.
which of these platelet units would be appropriate to transfuse to jill
Which of these platelet units would be appropriate to transfuse to Jill?
  • A Rh Negative
  • AB Rh Negative
  • B Rh Negative
  • O Rh Positive
  • Any of these units could be transfused to Jill as there are no antigens on her Group O RBCs that could interact with the antibodies in the donor units’ plasma.
o rh positive platelets
O Rh Positive Platelets
  • This unit could be transfused to Jill

HOWEVER since she is Rh Negative…

  • She may need an RhIG injection afterward to prevent the formation of anti-D.
case three
Case Three
  • Steve was involved in a motor vehicle accident.
  • He received 12 units of O Rh Negative uncrossmatched packed RBCs in the emergency room.
  • He is being prepped for a splenectomy.
steve s lab results
Steve’s lab results
  • WBC 12 K/µL
  • RBC 3.80 M/µL
  • Hgb 10.6 g/dL
  • Hct 30.2 %
  • Plt 20 K/µL
  • PT 24 sec
  • PTT 65 sec
how would you interpret steve s type and screen results
How would you interpret Steve’s Type and Screen results?
  • B Rh Positive, negative antibody screen
  • What explains the mixed-field reactions with anti-B and anti-D?
  • The transfusion of a large number of O Rh Negative packed RBCs units.
  • When a large quantity of RBCs is transfused in less than 24 hours it is called ___________ .
  • Massive transfusion
which of these components should steve receive
Which of these components should Steve receive?
  • Cryoprecipitate
  • FFP
  • Packed RBCs
  • Platelets
packed rbcs2
Packed RBCs
  • At this time, Steve’s hemoglobin level is acceptable and transfusion of RBCs is not warranted as long as the patient is not actively bleeding.
    • Transfusion trigger is typically set at a hemoglobin of <7 g/dL
  • If the patient is currently bleeding, additional RBC transfusions may be indicated.
  • Please select a different component:
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • FFP
    • Platelets
cryoprecipitate
Cryoprecipitate
  • Although the patient’s PT and PTT are elevated, cryoprecipitate only contains a limited number of coagulation factors and will not fully correct the multiple factor deficiencies.
  • There is a better component choice available.
  • Please choose another component:
    • FFP
    • Packed RBCs
    • Platelets
slide24
FFP
  • This will restore the multiple coagulation factors that were depleted as Steve bled.
  • There is a second component that should be transfused at this time. Which one is it?
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • Packed RBCs
    • Platelets
platelets
Platelets
  • Steve’s platelet count is low, especially for a pre-surgical patient, so a platelet transfusion is indicated.
    • Transfusion trigger <50,000/µL

Continue

platelets1
Platelets
  • Steve’s platelet count is low, especially for a pre-surgical patient, so a platelet transfusion is indicated.
    • Transfusion trigger <50,000/µL
  • There is a second component that should be transfused at this time. Which one is it?
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • FFP
    • Packed RBCs
slide27
FFP
  • This will restore the multiple coagulation factors that were depleted as Steve bled.
which of these blood types would be suitable when selecting ffp for steve
Which of these blood types would be suitable when selecting FFP for Steve?
  • B Rh Negative
  • AB Rh Positive
  • O Rh Negative
  • A Rh Positive
  • The antibodies in the plasma of these donors would not react with the antigens on Steve’s RBCs.
case four
Case Four
  • Jimmy is a 4 year old with Hemophilia A who is experiencing a bleed into his knee joints.
  • Which of the following would provide the best treatment for Jimmie?

Cryoprecipitate

    • FFP
    • Factor VIII concentrate
    • Platelet Concentrates
platelet concentrates2
Platelet Concentrates
  • While Jimmie does have a bleeding problem, platelets will not correct for the coagulation deficiency found in Hemophilia A.
  • Please choose a different product:
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • FFP
    • Factor VIII Concentrate
slide31
FFP
  • FFP is ideal when the patient has multiple factor deficiencies.
  • In this case, we are missing 1 specific factor; there is a better choice.
  • What is it?
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • Factor VIII Concentrate
    • Platelet Concentrates
cryoprecipitate1
Cryoprecipitate
  • This is not a bad choice, but there is a better (safer) product.
  • Please choose another product:
    • FFP
    • Factor VIII concentrate
    • Platelet Concentrates
factor viii concentrate
Factor VIII Concentrate
  • This derivative product would provide the safest and most effective treatment for Jimmie.
    • Processed to remove/destroy viruses
    • Known quantity of Factor VIII
case five
Case Five
  • Sue is scheduled for a liver transplant today.
  • She has a history of an anaphylactic transfusion reaction.
    • The transfusion reaction workup revealed Sue has no IgA in her serum, and has formed anti-IgA.
  • The surgeon has ordered 10 units of packed RBCs and 10 units of Plasma to be prepared for the transplant surgery.
slide35
Which of these RBC components would prevent Sue from having another anaphylactic transfusion reaction?
  • Frozen/Deglycerolized RBCs
  • Irradiated packed RBCs
  • Leukoreduced packed RBCs
  • Washed packed RBCs
  • Washed packed RBCs are most suitable for prevention of anaphylactic transfusion reactions
  • Deglyc’d units could substitute for washed, but are more expensive and generally are units that are difficult to find
assuming sue is a rh negative which of the following plasma components could she safely receive
Assuming Sue is A Rh Negative, which of the following Plasma components could she safely receive?
  • A Rh Positive
  • B Rh Negative
  • O Rh Positive
  • AB Rh Negative
  • Only the A and AB plasma units lack antibodies that could react with the antigens on Sue’s Group A RBCs.
  • Remember that Rh is not a consideration for plasma, as plasma is not a cellular component.
which of these plasma products would be appropriate for transfusion to sue
Which of these plasma products would be appropriate for transfusion to Sue?
  • Fresh Frozen Plasma
  • IgA deficient plasma
  • Irradiated plasma
  • Washed plasma
  • Only IgA deficient plasma can be transfused without causing an anaphylactic reaction.
    • FFP will have labile coag factors present, but will also have IgA, unless specifically collected from an IgA deficient donor.
    • Irradiation and washing are for cellular products only.
what is the difference between plasma and fresh frozen plasma ffp
What is the difference between Plasma and Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP)?
  • FFP must be frozen within 8 hours (if manufactured from a Whole Blood collection) or according to the FDA’s guidelines (for an apheresis collection) in order to maintain adequate levels of the labile coag factors.
    • Factors V and VIII
  • Plasma can be prepared from FFP that did not meet the freezing timeline, or FFP that has been thawed and not transfused within 24 hours.
    • Plasma has the stabile coag factors, but reduced levels of labile factors.
  • In most cases, either FFP or Plasma are suitable for transfusion to restore multiple coag factor deficiencies.
case six
Case Six
  • George is a potential bone marrow transplant recipient.
  • During treatment to ablate his marrow, he has been supported with multiple packed RBC and platelet concentrate transfusions.
  • His last 3 platelet transfusions have not resulted in the expected increase in platelet count.
what term is given to this lack of response to platelet transfusions
What term is given to this lack of response to platelet transfusions?
  • The patient is said to be refractory to platelets.
slide41
Transfusion of which of these components would result the greatest improvement in the platelet increment?
  • ABO group specific Platelets, Pheresis
  • HLA – matched Platelets, Pheresis
  • Irradiated platelets (apheresis or concentrates)
  • Washed platelets (apheresis or concentrates)
irradiated platelets
Irradiated Platelets
  • Although his immunosuppression may qualify George to receive irradiated cellular components, this will not improve his response to platelets in this case.
  • Please choose another component.
    • ABO group specific Platelets, Pheresis
    • HLA – matched Platelets, Pheresis
    • Washed platelets (apheresis or concentrates)
washed platelets
Washed Platelets
  • Washing cellular products removes plasma proteins that contribute to anaphylactic and severe allergic transfusion reactions.
  • This will not improve George’s response to platelet transfusion.
  • Please select another component:
    • ABO group specific Platelets, Pheresis
    • HLA – matched Platelets, Pheresis
    • Irradiated platelets (apheresis or concentrates)
abo group specific platelets pheresis
ABO Group Specific Platelets, Pheresis
  • Transfusing Platelets, Pheresis will limit the number of donors that George is exposed to (in contrast to pools of platelet concentrates). This can be quite beneficial in preventing refractoriness.
  • While providing platelets that are ABO group specific may improve George’s response to platelet transfusion, there is a better choice.
  • What is it?
    • HLA – matched Platelets, Pheresis
    • Irradiated platelets (apheresis or concentrates)
    • Washed platelets (apheresis or concentrates)
hla matched platelets pheresis
HLA – matched Platelets, Pheresis
  • Transfusing Platelets, Pheresis will limit the number of donors that George is exposed to (in contrast to pools of platelet concentrates). This can be quite beneficial in preventing refractoriness.
  • Platelet refractoriness is often caused by HLA antibodies in the recipient destroying the donor platelets. Using platelets that match at the HLA- A and B loci should result in improved platelet counts.
    • A match = all 4 antigens (2 A’s and 2 B’s) match.
    • B match = 3 of 4 antigens match; 4th is either a duplicate (homozygous) or one in which the antibody cross-reacts with one of the patient’s antigens.
    • C match = 3 of 4 antigens match; 4th is complete mismatch. This is not a good match and will probably not improve the platelet increment.
what component attribute could have prevented formation of george s hla antibodies
What component attribute could have prevented formation of George’s HLA antibodies?
  • Alcohol fractionation
  • Leukoreduction
  • Irradiation
  • Washed
  • Removal of WBCs by filtration will reduce exposure to HLA antigens and limit HLA antibody formation, preventing refractoriness.
attributes
Attributes
  • Alcohol fractionation is used in preparing derivatives from plasma
  • Irradiation prevents Transfusion Associated - Graft vs. Host Disease
  • Washing removes plasma proteins in order to prevent anaphylactic and severe allergic reactions
case seven
Case Seven
  • Maureen is undergoing a liver transplant.
  • Near the end of her procedure, the surgeon would like to transfuse her with a bolus of fibrinogen.
  • Which of these blood products should the surgeon order?
    • Albumin
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • FFP
    • Factor VIII concentrate
albumin
Albumin
  • This is a plasma derivative that does not contain coagulation factors.
  • Please choose another product:
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • FFP
    • Factor VIII concentrate
factor viii concentrate1
Factor VIII Concentrate
  • This plasma derivative contains Factor VIII only.
  • Fibrinogen is NOT in this product.
  • Please choose a different product:
    • Albumin
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • FFP
slide51
FFP
  • FFP contains multiple coagulation factors, including fibrinogen.
  • However, there are more coag factors in this component than what the recipient requires.
  • There is a better choice. What is it?
    • Albumin
    • Cryoprecipitate
    • Factor VIII concentrate
cryoprecipitate2
Cryoprecipitate
  • The most common use of cryoprecipitate is for replacement of fibrinogen!
slide53
If Maureen is AB Rh Positive, which of these cryoprecipitate units would be the best choice for her transfusion?
  • AB Rh Negative
  • A Rh Positive
  • O Rh Positive
  • B Rh Positive
  • All of the above!
    • Since there are no cells and extremely little plasma in cryoprecipitate, a recipient of any blood type can receive cryoprecipitate of any blood type.
case eight
Case Eight
  • Mike is scheduled for prostate surgery.
  • His surgeon has ordered four units of packed RBCs for him.
  • These are his type and screen results:
mike has an abo discrepancy
Mike has an ABO Discrepancy
  • What is the most likely cause?
    • Please click the button in front of your choice.
  • Cold alloantibody
  • Cold autoantibody
  • Rouleaux
  • Subgroup of A with anti-A1
rouleaux
Rouleaux
  • Not likely as none of the screen cells reacted at the IS phase.
    • Since rouleaux is due to excess plasma proteins, all the reactions using the patient’s plasma should have been affected.
  • Please make another choice:
    • Cold alloantibody
    • Cold autoantibody
    • Subgroup of A with anti-A1
cold alloantibody
Cold Alloantibody
  • There should have been reactivity with one or more screen cells at the IS phase if this were the source of the discrepancy.
  • Please make another selection:
    • Cold autoantibody
    • Rouleaux
    • Subgroup of A with anti-A1
cold autoantibody
Cold Autoantibody
  • No reactivity with the screen cells at the IS phase rules out this possibility.
  • Please make another selection:
    • Cold alloantibody
    • Rouleaux
    • Subgroup of A with anti-A1
subgroup of a with anti a 1
Subgroup of A with anti-A1
  • YES! How would you confirm this?
  • Test the patient’s RBCs with anti-A1 lectin to prove that the patient lacks this antigen and could form an antibody to it.
  • Repeat the reverse grouping using A2 cells to prove the reactivity with the A1 cells is directed at the A1 antigen and NOT against the A antigen.
which of the following packed rbc units would be appropriate for transfusion to mike
Which of the following packed RBC units would be appropriate for transfusion to Mike?
  • A1 Rh Negative
  • A2 Rh Positive
  • A2B Rh Positive
  • O Rh Positive
  • O Rh Negative
  • These units lack antigens that would react with Mike’s antibodies (anti-A1 and anti-B).
should mike s surgeon order plasma during surgery which of these plasma units would be acceptable
Should Mike’s surgeon order Plasma during surgery, which of these Plasma units would be acceptable?
  • A1 Rh Negative
  • A2 Rh Positive
  • A2B Rh Positive
  • O Rh Positive
  • O Rh Negative
  • These units do not contain antibodies that would react with the antigens on Mike’s RBCs.
    • Remember it is Mike who has anti-A1 in his plasma, not the plasma donor!
case nine
Case Nine
  • Willie has anti-Jsb in his serum.
  • If his physician wants to transfuse packed RBCs to Willie, which of these sources should be considered?
    • Autologous blood
    • Directed donors
    • Designated Donors
    • Frozen deglycerolized units
all of these
All of these!
  • Jsb is a high prevalence antigen, so finding antigen negative blood will be difficult.
  • If it is possible to plan ahead, Willie should be encouraged to donate autologous RBCs.
    • These could be frozen for future use.
  • Sometimes when one person in a family is negative for a high prevalence antigen, there are others in the family (i.e. siblings) who are also antigen negative. These individuals may be able to serve as Directed Donors.
    • If the antiserum to type family members is not readily available, and the patient’s antibody is strong and you have an adequate quantity, you may screen potential donors with the patient’s serum and then have the donors who appear to be compatible tested for the antigen by a reference laboratory that does have the anti-serum.
designated donors
Designated Donors
  • The American Rare Donor program maintains a database of donors who are Rh null, Bombay phenotype, negative for high prevalence antigens, etc.
  • Working with a reference laboratory, it may be possible to recruit a “rare donor” to make a donation for a specific recipient (liquid unit).
  • When these rare donor units are not immediately transfused, they are frozen in glycerol; if a liquid unit is not available, a frozen unit may be located.
    • Frozen, deglycerolized units typically outdate 24 hours after thawing.
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