Rhetorical / Logical Fallacies. What is a Fallacy?. An argument must be based on sound reasoning Fallacies are flaws in reasoning that detract from the validity or soundness of an argument Sometimes their use is by accident; others, they are used to deliberately mislead or “win” an argument.
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Example: "Eating five candy bars and drinking two sodas before a test helps me get better grades. I did that and got an A on my last test in history.”
What’s wrong with this line of reasoning?
Answer: The argument is fallacious because it falsely assumes that since the one thing (eating five candy bars) immediately precedes the other (getting an A), the relationship is causal.
Since there are three primary argumentative modes, there are three categories of fallacies: