beyond anarchism
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Beyond Anarchism

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 43

Beyond Anarchism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 160 Views
  • Uploaded on

Beyond Anarchism. Marinetti, Futurism, Futurist Anarchism University College of London (UK), dept. of Italian, 3.12.2008. Marja Härmänmaa, University of Helsinki, Finland / University of Cambridge, Clare Hall College. ”A visit”. In 1865 Mikhail Bakunin went to Naples

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Beyond Anarchism' - cameron-graham


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
beyond anarchism

Beyond Anarchism

Marinetti, Futurism, Futurist Anarchism

University College of London (UK), dept. of Italian, 3.12.2008

Marja Härmänmaa, University of Helsinki, Finland / University of Cambridge, Clare Hall College

a visit
”A visit”
  • In 1865 Mikhail Bakunin went to Naples
  • Creation of Bakunin’s Anarchist ideology
  • Foundation of Anarchist movement in Italy
    • In 1900 the murder of King Umberto I
conceptualization of futurist anarchism
Conceptualization of Futurist Anarchism
  • Social utopia of Futurism?
  • The social meaning of Art?
  • The role of the artist in society?
italy cradle of anarchism
Italy cradle of Anarchism
  • Mikhail Bakunin (1814 – 1876)
  • Errico Malatesta (1853-1932)
  • Economically a poor country
  • Disappointment of unification
  • Corruption of the political class
  • Cultural and political anarchism
    • D’Annunzio
    • Gian Pietro Lucini
political radicalism artistic anarchism
Political radicalism & artistic anarchism
  • Associated around the mid 19th century
  • Changed artistic institution
  • New autonomy of arts and artists
  • Critique of middle class society and its materialistic values
  • France: Symbolism and Impressionism
marinetti s early social interests
Marinetti’s early social interests
  • Le Roi Bombance (1905)
    • Social revolution (led by the socialists Filippo Turati and Antonio Labriola)
  • Before the IWW
    • Against the politics of Giolitti
    • Connections with extra pariamentary groups
    • George Sorel and the theory of the use of violence
marinetti and anarchism
Marinetti and Anarchism
  • Theme of ’destruction’ in the first works
    • La conquête des étoiles (1902)
    • Destruction (1904)
  • In Paris in contact with the Anarchists
  • Abbaye de Créteil, utopistic community of anarchist artists
futurist anarchy
Futurist anarchy
  • Foundation of Futurism (1909):
    • ”the most aggressive revolt of the modern man towards the past and the present time”
  • Artistic anarchism
  • Against the artistic tradition
  • Rupture of the artistic tradition in Modernism (partly) caused by the diffusion of anarchist ideas in arts
conferenza su l amore del pericolo e l eroismo quotidiano 1910
”Conferenza su l’amore del pericolo e l’eroismo quotidiano” (1910)
  • “E voi, forse, non avete ancora un concetto esatto di ciò che siamo e di quel che vogliamo. Immaginate nella malinconica e stagnante repubblica delle lettere e delle arti un gruppo di giovani assolutamente ribelle e demolitore che stanco di adorare il passato, nauseato dal pedantismo accademico, avido di originalità temeraria e anelante verso una vita avventurosa, energica e quotidianamente eroica, sgombrare l’anima italiana da quel amasso [sic] di pregiudizi di luoghi comuni, di rispetti e di venerazioni che noi chiamiamo il passatismo. Insomma: degli anarchici in arte, ecco che cosa sono i futuristi.”
reasons to deny the past
Reasons to deny the past
  • Judeo-christian conception of linear time
  • Advent of the “macchina” had broken the chain of linear time
  • Beginning of a new era
  • Past did not exist
prefazione futurista a revolverate di gian pietro lucini 1910
”Prefazione futurista a ’Revolverate’ di Gian Pietro Lucini” (1910)
  • ”Il presente non mai come in questi tempi apparve staccato dalla catena genetica del passato, figlio di sé stesso e generatore formidabile delle potenze future”
versions of anarchism
Versions of Anarchism
  • Enlightenment
    • William Godwin (1756 – 1836)
    • Peter Kropotkin (1842 – 1921)
    • A perfect society  communism
  • Romanticism
    • Mikhail Bakunin (1814 – 1876)
    • Max Stirner (1806 – 1856)
    • Individual anarchism
individual anarchism
Individual Anarchism
  • Max Stirner:
    • Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum (1844)
  • No interest towards society nor towards the arts
  • Importance of the individual as ’ego’ against everything
  • All social institutions (government, church..) are artificial concepts and thus false authorities
individual aestheticism
Individual aestheticism
  • Artist produces his uniqueness in art
  • Individualist makes art out of his own personality
  • Egoist makes art to promote himself
  • Partly explains the heterogeneity of modernist culture
futurism as a work of art
’Futurism’ as a work of art
  • In order to promote Marinetti
  • Absolute leader of the movement
  • Mafarka il futurista (1910)
    • Mafarka = Marinetti
    • Gazourmah = Futurism
nihilism of cultural modernism
Nihilism of Cultural modernism
  • Matei Calinescu:
  • Otherness and change important
  • Tradition of ”antitradition”
  • Future way out of rotten present, son of the past
  • When future moment is reached, it becomes present moment
  • Continuous destruction / rejection
futurist nichilism in arts
Futurist nichilism in arts
  • Faith in progress
  • Guerra sola igiene del mondo (1915)
    • ”Abbiate fiducia nel progresso, che ha sempre ragione, anche quando ha torto, perché è il movimento, la vita, la lotta, la speranza.”
  • Principle of eternal development
  • Nothing is supposed to last
  • Works of art are to be destroyed when they are ready
l aeroplano del papa 1912
L’Aeroplano del Papa (1912)
  • ”Sono incessantemente commisto alle mie scorie.

La mia vita è la fusione perpetua dei miei frantumi.

Distruggo per creare ed ancora distruggo

per modellare statue tonanti

che subito spezzo con lo schifo e il terrore di vederle durare!”

futurist nichilism in politics
Futurist nichilism in politics
  • Before WW1 no social utopia
  • Principle of the eternal development
  • Ideal: the everlasting state of war
  • ”War, world’s sole hygiene”
futurist political activity
Futurist political activity
  • Marinetti’s growing interest towards politics after WW1
  • First political manifesto (1913)
  • Futurist political party (1918)
  • Democrazia futurista (1919)
  • Al di là del comunismo (1920)
modernizing italy
Modernizing Italy
  • Abolition of Pope, monarchy, parliament and marriage
  • A government of technicians in power with a council of Young people
  • 8-hours working day
futurist anarchist state
”Futurist Anarchist State”
  • Final result of the political program
  • An apolitical anarchistic utopia
  • No class struggle
  • ”Al di là del comunismo”
  • Instead of the proletariat, a spiritual aristocracy that has the right to realize the Italian revolution
artecrazia
”Artecrazia”
  • Jean Grave (1854 – 1939)
  • La societé mourante et l’anarchie (1892)
  • Anarchy is art
  • Art = supreme form of individualism
  • The main duty of an anarchist society is to produce culture
  • Oscar Wilde
d annunzio and fiume
D’Annunzio and Fiume
  • The Republic of Fiume (1919 - 1920)
  • La Carta del Carnaro
  • Free university
  • Academy of fine arts
  • Schools of music
  • In every municipality an orchestra and a choir subsidized by the State and giving free concerts
marinetti s version
Marinetti’s version
  • Al di là del comunismo (1920)
  • ”Art is an alcohol that gives optimism to citizens”
  • Number of artists must increase -> race of artists
  • In every city a centre of genius
  • Every month new exhibitions of art and poetry readings.
  • Music: in every piazza a choir and an orchestra
  • Life must become a work of art
goodbye anarchy
Goodbye, anarchy!
  • ”Il Futurismo è un movimento schiettamente artistico ed ideologico. Interviene nelle lotte politiche soltanto nelle ore di grave pericolo per la Nazione.” (Futurismo e Fascismo, 1924)
avant garde and totalitarianism
Avant-garde and totalitarianism
  • Mussolini in power in 1922
  • Changed position of Futurism from antagonism to collaboration with the State
  • Important position in the artistic life of the Fascist Italy (Venice Biennale…)
  • Marinetti member of l’Accademia d’Italia
  • Marinetti wrote 2-3 articles in the Italian Encyclopedia about Futurism
  • Marinetti a special propagandist of the State in case of war
anarchist art
Anarchist art
  • Difficult to define
  • Artistic anarchy towards society?
  • Artistic anarchy within the tradition of art?
  • Kropotkin and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon:
    • Art must serve the revolution
    • Documentary meaning: Social realism
fascist art policy
Fascist art policy
  • Discussion started immediately when Mussolini became prime minister
  • Futurists wanted a strict artistic policy
  • Political dictatorship – artistic dictatorship
  • Futurism as the official art of Fascism
  • Futurism had collaborated in the foundation of Fascism (1919)
  • Fascist Italy a modern State – a need of a modern art
art and anarchist society
Art and anarchist society
  • Kropotkin:
    • Artist represented the conscience of humanity
    • Artist was able to change social reality
futurist art and society
Futurist art and society
  • Marinetti:
    • ”art and literature have an enormous influence upon society”
    • Art as a tool of social activity
    • Rejection of the conception ”art for art’s sake”
    • Social role of artist
    • Social role of arts
arte vita
”Arte – vita”
  • Introduction of life in arts
    • Easy to understand
    • Art in direct contact with life (antiacademic)
  • Profanation of the Enlightened middle-class concept of ”sublime art”
    • Create corageously ”ugly”
    • Spite on the althare of the arts
  • Abolition of the boundaries between art – non art
    • New art forms: cuisine
    • New elements to arts: sport
futurists and the fascist art
Futurists and the Fascist art
  • Impossibility to detach from the socio-political reality:
    • ”The political spirit that Mussolini has created is so impressive that the artists could not escape its influence.”
  • The propagandistic aim of art:
    • ”Art must serve a universal, political or nationalistic aim.”
aerofuturism
Aerofuturism
  • Glorification of the airplanes and aviation
  • Propaganda of the technological progress of Italy
  • Nationalistic reasons
  • The spiritual element of flight: non-materialistic dimension of technology
some strategies to disturb the order
”Some strategies to disturb the order”
  • Anarchism = antagonistic ideology
  • Avant-garde = aesthetic dimension
  • Terrorism = strategy of realization
anarchism now
Anarchism, now?
  • Italy: reorganization of the anarchist movement in 1945 (Federazione anarchica italiana, FAI)
  • Wikipedia: anarcho-capitalism, green anarchism, anarca-feminism, anarco-primitivism…
bourgeois anarchy
Bourgeois anarchy
  • Internet: cradle of anarchism, no authority
  • Collapse of Soviet Union
  • Growing power of multi-national enterprises
  • Nation States’ diminishing power
  • ”Umanità cammina verso l’individualismo anarchico, mèta e sogno d’ogni spirito forte” (Marinetti, 1920)
futurist anarchism now 1909 2009
Futurist Anarchism now (1909-2009)?
  • Marinetti’s anarchist strategy
    • Colourful language
    • Artistic and extra-artistic manifestations
  • Aiming at getting attention and at hiding a mediocre writer
  • Model of the modern intellectual
  • Television series (The Idols)
  • Politics (Berlusconi, Lega Nord)
thanks

Thanks!

”In everyone of us there is a little Anarchist… at least occasionally!” (M.H.)