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Vocabulary Learning Words Through Context. There is a general agreement among theorists and researchers that most words are learned from context (Graves, 200; Hart & Risley, 1995; Nagy, Hermann, & Anderson, 1985; Sternberg, 1983) . Research Says….

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Vocabulary Learning Words Through Context

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Vocabulary learning words through context l.jpg

Vocabulary Learning Words Through Context

There is a general agreement among theorists and researchers that most words are learned from context (Graves, 200; Hart & Risley, 1995; Nagy, Hermann, & Anderson, 1985; Sternberg, 1983)


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Research Says…

  • According to the National Reading Panel (2001), which reviewed research about vocabulary development, both vocabulary instruction and assessment are crucial to students’ literacy success.

  • Students learn to read better when they receive exemplary literacy instruction.

  • Wide Reading Support Vocabulary Development by increasing the time they spend reading (Sustained Silent Reading B.E.A.R., Reading Logs, Literature Circles) Teachers should encourage students to read as much and as widely as possible (Graves and Watts-Taffe 2002).


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Key Statements From A Few Literacy Experts

  • A lack of vocabulary is a key component underlying failure for many students, especially for those who are economically disadvantaged (Biemiller 2001; Biemiller & Slonium, 2001; Hart & Risley, 1995, Hirsch 2001).

  • Both wide reading and explicit instruction help to build a new vocabulary. To be most effective, teachers should teach the most useful words (high utility words), and students should have the opportunity to apply their knowledge of these words in multiple subject areas and fictional texts. (Beck, Perfetti & McKewon, 1982; Beck, McKeown, & Kucan 2002.)

  • Consistent and daily retention to words builds students’ literacy growth (Brabham & Lynch-Brown, 2002; Dickenson & Tabors, 2001). The repeated teaching of high-utility words.

  • Consistent and daily attention to words builds students’ literacy growth (Brabham & Lynch-Brown, 2002; Dickinson &Tabors, 2001). The repeated teaching of high-utility and the application of these words in multiple contexts significantly increase students’ comprehension on standardized literacy tests (Block & Mangieri, 2005; Gough, Alford, & Holly-Wilcox, 1981; Fry, 2004).


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Literacy Enhancement (Block & Mangeri, 2005) A Conducted Study Analyzed The Vocabulary Practices Of 409 Exemplary Teachers From Colorado, Maryland, New Jersey North Carolina, Pennsylvania, And Texas

  • Ten Major Findings from this study are:

  • Students understood that vocabulary is important.

  • Students learned important, relevant words.

  • Students learned high-utility words.

  • Students learned and retained words more quickly-and had fun doing it.

  • Students learned vocabulary through their preferred learning style.

  • Students received multiple exposures to words and their meanings.

  • Students received Context-based vocabulary instruction.

  • Students were assessed using measures that went beyond asking them to give the definition of a word.

  • Students learned the process of building their vocabulary through lessons that combined instruction in word-meaning clues and vocabulary-building strategies.

  • Students listened to and engaged in Think Alouds.


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    Using Context Weaves Together Both The Semantic And Syntax To Unlock The Meaning Of An Unknown Word.

    • Using context clues is a powerful tool for vocabulary building and is most valuable when used to learn the meanings of the most frequently occurring words.

    • Sixty-one percent of all English words can be learned using context clues.

    • Context can be provided by pictures, words, sentences, and paragraphs that occur before and after the unknown word.

    • Strategies that help students connect words with their prior knowledge, emphasize comprehension monitoring, and actively engage students in learning are more likely to result in significant vocabulary growth.


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    The Following Teaching Techniques Promote Learning Words Through Context

    Context Clues

    • Using Context Clues that are embedded in a sentence, a paragraph, the whole text, or a picture will help students figure out the meaning of an unknown word. This is perhaps the most important vocabulary-building strategy a reader can possess.

      Vocabulary Cloze Procedure

    • Using the vocabulary cloze procedure helps students become proficient at using context clues. The procedure can be used with narrative or informational text to introduce new vocabulary in a meaningful context.

      Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy (Haggard, 1982)

    • This strategy gives the students the opportunity top select unknown or unfamiliar vocabulary through teacher support and motivation. The strategy requires that each student and the teacher identify two words to bring to the group for discussion. Students collect these words during discussions or while reading novels, stories, textbooks, newspapers, magazines, or web pages.


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    Our CommunitiesMacmillan/McGraw-Hill

    Using Context Clues

    • When you answered the questions in Build Background, you were describing the / / of your community. Geography is the study of Earth’s natural features.

    • When you answered the questions in Build Background, you were describing the /g / of your community. Geography is the study of Earth’s natural features.

    • When you answered the questions in Build Background, you were describing the geography of your community. Geography is the study of Earth’s natural features.


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    Vocabulary Cloze Procedure

    If you took a trip across the United States you would see different kinds of _____________. A landform is the shape of the surface of the land.

    A large area of flat land is called a _____. The Great Plains stretch from North Dakota all the way south to Texas. A __________ is a large flat area of flat land that is raised high above the land around it. The Colorado Plateau can be found in New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah. The Rocky Mountains stretch from New Mexico past Montana.

    Landforms affect people’s lives. For example, in mountain communities people often need cars with special tires to get around. And people can affect landforms, such as when a dam is built to stop a river.

    Geographers find it useful to divide our country into ________.

    A region is an area with common features that set it apart from other areas. Communities in a region often have similar economies with people working in similar jobs.

    landformsplainplateau regions


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    Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy Sheet

    Selected Words:

    1. landforms

    2. plain

    Sentences I heard or read using the selected words:

    A landform is the shape of the surface of the land.

    The Great Plains stretch from North Dakota all the way south to Texas

    Definitions: What the words mean:

    A shape on the Earth’s surface such as a mountain or hill

    An area of flat or nearly flat land

    Memory Help (drawing, word map, mnemonic, etc)

    Idea for using the word this week:

    Look for a book on geography in the school library


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    New Jersey Adventures In Time And Place Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

    Using Context Clues

    New Jersey is more than just its Landforms. It is also home to thousands of different kinds of plants and animals and over 8 million people. One of the best ways to describe our state is to talk about its / /. Geography is the study of Earth and the way people, plants, and animals live on it and use it.

    New Jersey is more than just its Landforms. It is also home to thousands of different kinds of plants and animals and over 8 million people. One of the best ways to describe our state is to talk about its / g /. Geography is the study of Earth and the way people, plants, and animals live on it and use it.

    New Jersey is more than just its Landforms. It is also home to thousands of different kinds of plants and animals and over 8 million people. One of the best ways to describe our state is to talk about its / geography/. Geography is the study of Earth and the way people, plants, and animals live on it and use it.


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    Vocabulary Cloze Procedure

    Within its small area, however, New Jersey packs a rich variety of ________. Landforms are the shapes that make up the Earth’s Surface. Mountains, hills, and _____are all examples of landforms. New Jersey has plenty of each, ranging form the mountains of the northwest to the plains along the Atlantic Ocean in the southeast.

    New Jersey is more than just its landforms. It is also home to thousands of different kinds of plants and animals and over 8 million people. One of the best ways to describe our state is to talk about its _________. Geography is the study of Earth and the way people, plants, and animals live on it and use it.

    geographylandformsplains


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    Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy Sheet

    Selected Words:

    1. geography

    2. landforms

    Sentences I heard or read using the selected words:

    The geography of New Jersey makes it a special place.

    A landform is the shape of the surface of the land.

    Definitions: What the words mean:

    is the study of Earth and the way people, plants, and animals live on it and use it.

    A shape on the Earth’s surface such as a mountain or hill

    Memory Help (drawing, word map, mnemonic, etc)

    Idea for using the word this week:

    Look for a book on geography in the school library


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    To Conclude:

    • A strong vocabulary is essential to literacy success.

    • Important words must be taught explicitly on a repeated basis.

    • Vocabulary words should be presented to students using multi-modal instructional strategies that will engage higher-level thinking.

    • Students must learn that words contain clues to their meanings.

    • When vocabulary is properly taught, most students will learn and understand words and improve their comprehension and their attitude toward redoing.


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    Presented by

    Cynthia KennedyLiteracy Resource Specialist


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