The Adaptationist Approach
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The Adaptationist Approach. ZOL 313 May 22, 2008. The Adaptationist Approach. Objectives: Be able to define an adaptation and identify adaptive behaviors. Become familiar with some different ways to test adaptationist hypotheses . Understand why adaptations are not perfect .

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The Adaptationist Approach

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The adaptationist approach

The Adaptationist Approach

ZOL 313

May 22, 2008


The adaptationist approach

The Adaptationist Approach

  • Objectives:

  • Be able to define an adaptation and identify adaptive behaviors.

  • Become familiar with some different ways to test adaptationist hypotheses.

  • Understand why adaptations are not perfect.

  • Understand the concept of inclusive fitness and be able to calculate when it using Hamilton’s Rule

ZOL 313

May 22, 2008


The adaptationist approach

What is an adaptation?

Moller 1994 - Fig. 4.4

- Fig. 6.15

Fitness:

Example:


The adaptationist approach

  • The “adaptationist approach” to studying animal behavior involves

  • How can we test adaptive hypotheses?

  • Experiments

  • Comparative Method

  • Optimality Theory

  • Game thoery


The adaptationist approach

  • Using experiments to test adaptive hypotheses

  • Example:


The adaptationist approach

1. Using experiments to test adaptive hypotheses

Hypothesis 1:

Prediction:


The adaptationist approach

1. Using experiments to test adaptive hypotheses

Hypothesis 2:

Prediction a:

Prediction b:

Prediction c:


The adaptationist approach

1. Using experiments to test adaptive hypotheses

Hypothesis 3:

Prediction a:


The adaptationist approach

1. Using experiments to test adaptive hypotheses

Hypothesis 3:

Prediction b:


The adaptationist approach

2. Using the comparative method to test adaptive hypotheses

Example:


The adaptationist approach

2. Using the comparative method to test adaptive hypotheses

Convergent evolution:

Divergent evolution:


The adaptationist approach

3. Using Optimality Theory to test adaptive hypotheses


The adaptationist approach

3. Using Optimality Theory to test adaptive hypotheses

Example:

Benefit

Cost


The adaptationist approach

4. Using Game Theory to test adaptive hypotheses


The adaptationist approach

  • Why aren’t adaptations perfect?

  • Lack of genetic variation/appropriate mutations

  • Tradeoffs with other traits/pleiotropy

  • Coevolution


The adaptationist approach

Why aren’t adaptations perfect? 1. Lack of genetic variation/appropriate mutations

Example:

Example:


The adaptationist approach

Why aren’t adaptations perfect? 2. Tradeoffs/pleiotropy

Example:

Pleiotropy:

Example:


The adaptationist approach

Why aren’t adaptations perfect? 2. Tradeoffs/pleiotropy

Example: The “Farm Fox Experiment”

After many generations, their farm foxes also became more “dog-like” in: 1.

2.

http://youtube.com/watch?v=mzTcmE-pMLU


The adaptationist approach

Why aren’t adaptations perfect? 3. Coevolution

Example:

The “ Hypothesis”

"Well, in our country," said Alice, still panting a little, "You'd generally get to somewhere else--if you ran very fast for a long time as we've been doing.""A slow sort of country!" said the Queen. "Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that."


The adaptationist approach

Inclusive Fitness

Why help others when you could help yourself?

In order for a behavior to be adaptive…

Inclusive fitness=


The adaptationist approach

Inclusive Fitness

2

R=

2

Hamilton’s Rule:

Example: An inexperienced bird breeding on her own will produce an average of 1 offspring. If she helps her parents breed instead, she will help them raise an average of 2 more of her siblings than they would have without her help.

Should she help??? R=B=C=


The adaptationist approach

Inclusive Fitness

Example:


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