Endangered Species Act. Endangered Species Act. 1966 Whooping Crane inspires Congress to pass Endangered Species Preservation Act to protect critical habitats 1969 Whale conservation led to Endangered Species Conservation Act to prohibit import of listed species
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Section 3: Definitions
Section 4: Listing, Critical Habitat Designation, Recovery, Monitoring
Section 5: Land Acquisition
Section 6: Financial Assistance to States and Territories
Section 7: The Role of Federal Agencies
Section 8: International Cooperation
Section 8A: Convention Implementation
Section 9: Unlawful Activities
Section 10: Exceptions, including Permits
Section 11: Penalties and Enforcement
The Endangered Species Act
“… to conserve endangered and threatened species and the ecosystems on which they depend.”
A species is considered an endangered species when the species is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range
A species is considered a threatened species when the species is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range
The list of most endangered species includes:
Cuban crocodile: Currently restricted to two small areas of Cuba.
Grenada dove: The national bird of Grenada is threatened by habitat loss.
Florida bonneted bat: Thought to be extinct in 2002; a small colony has since been discovered.
Green-eyed frog: Only a few hundred of these small amphibians are left.
Hirola: Also called Hunter's hartebeest; the hirola is a highly threatened African antelope.
Ploughshare tortoise: With only 400 left, the ploughshare tortoise is threatened by the illegal pet trade.
Island gray fox: Living on the California Channel Islands, this is the smallest fox in the United States.
Sumatran orangutan: This population has declined 80 percent during the past 75 years.
Vaquita: This small ocean porpoise is drowning in fishing nets.
White-headed langur: Only 59 of these monkeys remain on a small island off Vietnam.
Public enforcement results in criminal, civil penalty and forfeiture actions
In addition, citizens may initiate private legal actions to enforce the ESA through citizen suits
The agencies may enter into a management agreement with any state in the U.S. for the administration and management of any area established for the conservation of listed species
Federal funds are provided to the states to implement the states’ conservation programs