Biotechnology applied in animal breeding
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Biotechnology applied in animal breeding. เทคโนโลยีชีวภาพทางสัตว์. Breeding objectives. Where to go?. How to get there?. Traits measurements Milk, growth, carcass, fertility Males vs females. Estimation of breeding value Phenotype Pedigree BLUP Genetic marker. DNA technology.

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Biotechnology applied in animal breeding

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Biotechnology applied in animal breeding



Breedingobjectives

Where to go?

How to get there?

  • Traits measurements

    • Milk, growth, carcass, fertility

    • Males vs females

  • Estimation of breeding value

    • Phenotype

    • Pedigree

    • BLUP

    • Genetic marker

  • DNA technology

  • Reproductive technology

Selection

Mating


Biotechnology in Animal Breeding

  • DNA technology

    • Gene recombination

    • Genetic engineering

    • Genetic markers

    • Genetic maps

    • DNA fingerprint

  • Reproductive technology

    • MOET

    • IVM, IVF

    • Embryo sexing

    • Nuclear transplantation


Gene selecting

  • Isolation of DNA (gene selecting I)

    Objective

    -

    • DNA extraction

    • DNA library ()

    • DNA sequencing ()

    • Gene synthesis gene cloning in vector

    • Gene purification ()


DNA

Transcription

RNA

Protein

  • Isolation of mRNA (gene selecting II)

    • Synthesis complementary DNA (cDNA) from mRNA or protein

    • DNA cloning

    • Gene purification

Reverse transcriptase

Translation


Gene recombination

  • Genetic engineering

. , sperm


Researchers in the UK report that they have developed chickens that are genetically modified to prevent them spreading bird flu.

(Credit: Image courtesy of University of Cambridge)


Gene Marker Association

Candidate genes for growth and carcass

GHSR= Ghrelin receptor

IGF-I= Insulin like growth factor I

cGH = chicken

IGFBP2= IGF binding protein II

Significant effect of IGF1 for EBV were found

Table: LSM for IGF1 genotype in CHEE

A

C


Marker Assisted Selection in TIC

Selection Index

MAS

Genotyping and

Selection vIGF1 allele A

Selection HSP70 C1C2

Avoiding HSP70 M1M2


halothanegene PCR

Porcine stress syndrome

M NN nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnNnNNNnNnnnnnnn

Halothane gene

NN ,

Nn

nn Halothane


Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene

Mutations that reduce the production of functional myostatin (MSTN) lead to an overgrowth of muscle tissue

Belgian Blue bull showing the double muscling phenotype


Impacts of the footrot gene-marker test on New Zealand sheep farming

Footrot is a disease that costs New Zealand sheep farmers over $80 million a year to treat. Selective breeding using a Footrot Gene-Marker Test (FGMT) could significantly reduce the amount of footrot on farms.

In 1997, Dr Jon Hickford and a team of researchers at Lincoln University isolated a gene that was linked to susceptibility or resistance to footrot. The scientists used their discovery to develop the Footrot Gene-Marker Test (FGMT) for use on farms.


Genetic maps

  • A genetic map is a representation of the genes on a chromosome arrayed in linear order w ith distances between loci expressed as percent recombination (map units, centimorgans). Also called a linkage map.


DNA fingerprint

1

2

3

4


PCR

  • () Thermal cycler ( PCR)


PCR-RFLP

  • 1 DNA PCR

  • 2 /


/

/

N =

n =

600bp

400bp

200bp

Nn

NN

Nn

Nn

nn

nn

NN

NN

Nn

NN

Nn

nn

nn

nn

Nn

nn


  • HAL Halothane gene ()

  • IGF2(%)

  • Estrogen Receptor ()

  • MC4R (%)

  • Napole()

  • BoLA()

  • Kappa casein gene ()


1% Chr.w

QTL linked marker

SSC1 MARBLING

Line-Cross

QTL position

4.5

4.0

3.5

-logP

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

cM

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

marker

= gene marker


Genetic diversity

  • Phylogenetic tree

  • Dendogram


Reproductive Technology

  • Artificial Insemination (A.I.)

  • Embryo Transfer and Related Technology

    • MOET

    • IVMandIVF

  • Cryopreservativeof embryo and oocyte

  • Sex Control

    • Embryo sexing

    • Sperm sexing

  • Cloning

    • Nuclear transplantation

    • Embryo splitting


  • Artificial insemination

(G)


  • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)


Embryo transfer


Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET)

(Donor) (Recipient)

1. Superovulation

2. Manipulation of estrous

3. A.I.

4. Embryo recoveryManipulation of estrous

Embryo Transfer

Pregnant

1


X

Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET)


  • Cloning

2

1. (blastomere separation or embryo bisection)

2. (nuclear transfer or nuclear transplantation)


Recombinant Hormone

  • Peptide Hormone genetic engineering (E.coli)

  • Bovine Growth hormone (Bovine somatotropin, BST)

  • 2


  • Transgenic animal


Steps in the IVF-ET Processes

2. normally fertilized eggs will have 2 nuclei in the center, one from the egg and one from the sperm.

3. the best quality embryos will have 8 cells.

1. the sperm are physically injected into egg

4. compacted embryos on day 3.

6. embryos that have continued development in culture and have developed to the blastocyst stage may be frozen.

5. development should be at the blastocyst stage

: www.stronghealth.com/.../ ivf/phototour.cfm


  • - -

    -

    -

  • -

    -


  • generation interval


Cryopreservative of embryo and oocyte

  • (freezing) (-196 C)


Sex Control

  • Sexing sperm

    • Flow cytrometer

    • X,Y


  • Sexing Embryo

    • embryo PCR


Embryo splitting

()

2 identical twin embryo transfer


Nuclear Transplantation

- nucleus cell embryo -

- genetic variation


Nuclear transplantation

2543..


...

- - - - -


-- - -


Ethical issues in animal biotechnology

Animal rights

- Recent action to allow animals to be patented reinforces the idea of animals as human property, rather than beings in their own right.


Animal welfare - Modern pigs have been bred to grow extra fast - some breeds now grow too fast for their hearts, causing discomfort when animals are too active - Broiler chickens are bred to grow fast - some now grow too fast for their legs

Transgenic animals and religious food laws

- Transgenic animals pose problems for religions that restrict the foods that their believers can eat, since they may produce animals that appear to be one species, but contain some elements of a forbidden species.


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