Strategic capacity planning
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Strategic capacity planning

Strategic Capacity Planning

Chapter 5

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Strategic capacity planning

Announcements

Tips for getting higher points in PSAs:

Read the problem description carefully

Answer all (sub-) questions

Show your work

If the problem description is not clear to you, let me know ASAP

  • Week 1 problem solving assignment (PSA) has been graded

    • Q1 (a) 20 points

    • Q1 (b) 20 points

    • Q2 (a) 20 points

    • Q2 (c) 20 points

    • Q3 20 points

  • Future PSAs will be released on Tuesdays

    • So that you will have one more day to work on them

    • You can now come to my Tuesday office hours for PSAs

  • Encourage participation in the next contemporary issues discussion (6/30)

  • Team project proposal due date is postponed to 6/27


Strategic capacity planning

contemporary issues

  • It appears to me that many of you were not particularly excited when peers were sharing contemporary issues.

  • For the next contemporary issues session:

    • You can go solo or form a team of two for a contemporary issue

    • In your discussion, give more visual materials, e.g.,

      • Slides

      • Video

      • Picture

      • Poster

      • Role play

      • … any things that can make the issue more vivid and memorable


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • After this lecture, students will be able to

    • Name the three key questions in capacity planning

    • Explain the importance of capacity planning

    • Describe ways of defining and measuring capacity

    • Name several determinants of effective capacity

    • Perform cost-volume analysis

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Strategic capacity planning

Motivation

wsj.com 1/14/14 -- Auto Makers Dare to Boost Capacity

  • A large increase in production capacity poses a serious risk for auto makers. They reap strong profits if their factories are running near 100% of capacity, but their losses mount rapidly if the utilization rate falls below 80%.And when manufacturers build more cars than they sell, they often resort to price wars to boost sales.

  • At the end of 2013, auto dealers had 3.45 million cars and trucks in stock… That is enough to last 63 days at the current sales rate, a level the industry considers optimal.


Capacity planning

Capacity Planning

  • Capacity

    • The upper limit or ceiling on the load that an operating unit can handle

    • Capacity needs include

      • Equipment

      • Space

      • Employee skills

  • Strategic Capacity Planning

    • To achieve a match between the long-term supply capabilities of an organization and the predicted level of long-term demand

      • Over-capacity  operating costs that are too high

      • Under-capacity  strained resources and possible loss of customers

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Capacity planning questions

Capacity Planning Questions

  • Key Questions:

    • What kind of capacity is needed?

    • How much is needed to match demand?

    • When is it needed?

  • Related Questions:

    • How much will it cost?

    • What are the potential benefits and risks?

    • Are there sustainability issues?

    • Should capacity be changed all at once, or through several smaller changes

    • Can the supply chain handle the necessary changes?

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Capacity decisions are strategic

Capacity Decisions Are Strategic

  • Capacity decisions:

    • impact the ability of the organization to meet future demands

      • When Microsoft introduced its new Xbox in late 2005, there were insufficient supplies, resulting in lost sales and unhappy customers.

    • affect operating costs

      • Costs of over- and under-capacity

    • affect competitiveness

      • capacity can affect delivery speed

      • affect the ease of management

      • (often) involve long-term commitment of resources

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Capacity

Capacity

  • Design capacity

    • Maximum output rate or service capacity an operation, process, or facility is designed for

  • Effective capacity

    • Design capacity minus allowances such as personal time, maintenance, and scrap

  • Actual output

    • Rate of output actually achieved--cannot exceed effective capacity.

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Strategic capacity planning

Capacity: Illustration

(Suppose) These are design capacityfrom Boeing.

But you typically won’t get to reach this design capacity because some seats are taken out for, say, galley and emergency exit. That’s why you have effective capacity.

Actual output would be equal of less than the effective capacity because you don’t always have that many passengers on the plane.


Measuring system effectiveness

Measuring System Effectiveness

  • Efficiency

    (Measured as percentages)

  • Utilization

    (Measured as percentages)

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Example efficiency and utilization

Example: Efficiency and Utilization

  • Design Capacity = 50 trucks per day

  • Effective Capacity = 40 trucks per day

  • Actual Output = 36 trucks per day

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Determinants of effective capacity

Determinants of Effective Capacity

  • Facilities

    • Size, expansions, layout, transportation costs, distance to market, labor supply, energy sources

  • Product and service factors

    • (non) uniformity of output, product/service mix

  • Process factors

    • Productivity, quality, setup-time

  • Human factors

    • Tasks, variety of activities, training, skills, learning, experience, motivation, labor turnover

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Determinants of effective capacity1

Determinants of Effective Capacity

  • Policy factors

    • Overtime, second/third shifts

  • Operational factors

    • Scheduling, inventory, purchasing, materials, quality assurance/control, breakdowns, maintenance

  • Supply chain factors

    • Suppliers, warehousing, transportation, distributors

  • External factors

    • Product standards, minimum quality, safety, environment, regulations, unions

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Capacity cushion safety capacity

Capacity Cushion / Safety Capacity

  • Capacity Cushion / Safety Capacity

    • Extra capacity used to offset demand uncertainty

  • Capacity cushion = Capacity – expected demand

  • Capacity cushion strategy

    • Organizations that have greater demand uncertainty typically use greater capacity cushion

    • Organizations that have standard products and services generally use smaller capacity cushion

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Demand management strategies

Demand Management Strategies

  • Strategies used to offset capacity limitations and that are intended to achieve a closer match between supply and demand

    • Appointments

    • Pricing

    • Promotions

    • Discounts

    • Other tactics to shift demand from peak periods into slow periods

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Bottleneck operation

Bottleneck

10/hr.

Operation 120/hr.

Operation 210/hr.

Operation 315/hr.

Maximum output ratelimited by bottleneck

Bottleneck Operation

  • An operation in a sequence of operations whose capacity is lower than that of the other operations

    • Animation: http://brams.dk/technotes/flash-mx/performance-bottlenect-simulation/

?

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Capacity strategies

Capacity Strategies

  • Leading

    • Build capacity in anticipation of future demand increases

    • E.g., let’s expand the restaurant because we expect to serve more customers in the next year

  • Following

    • Build capacity when demand exceeds current capacity

    • E.g., let’s expand the restaurant because we have been full up all the time in the pastyear

  • Tracking

    • Similar to the following strategy, but adds capacity in relatively small increments to keep pace with increasing demand

    • E.g., let’s expand the restaurant because we have been full up all the time in the pastmonth

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Forecasting capacity requirements

Forecasting Capacity Requirements

  • Long-term considerations relate to overall level of capacity requirements

    • Require forecasting demand over a time horizon and converting those needs into capacity requirements

    • E.g., Our hotel expect to serve 10 thousand customers next year.

  • Short-term considerations relate to probable variations in capacity requirements

    • Less concerned with cycles and trends than with seasonal variations and other variations from average

    • E.g., Our hotel expect to serve 10 thousand customers next year. But the demand will be higher in the summer, lower in the winter, and normal in the spring and fall.

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Common demand patterns

Common demand patterns

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Strategic capacity planning

Exercise

  • Suppose that you are a capacity planner in General Motor.

  • Discuss with a partner. What would you do to make sure you have the right capacity in GM?

    • Prediction? How?

    • Planning? How?

    • What other information do you need?


Strategic capacity planning

Example: Advanced Forecasting Methods

  • Choi, H., and Varian, H. 2012. Predicting the Present with Google Trends. Economic Record88 2–9.

    • Predicting sales of motor vehicles and parts

    • “We have found that simple seasonal AR models that include relevant Google Trends variables tend to outperform models that exclude these predictors by 5 per cent to 20 per cent.”

Auto-regressive (AR) models:

AR(k): Use the values from the past k time periods to predict the current value:

Example:

AR(4): Use the values from the past 4 time periods to predict the current value:

Salest = constant +

α1 × Salest-1+ α2 × Salest-2 +

α3 × Salest-3+ α4 × Salest-4+

β1× Google_Trend_Cart-1 +

β2× Google_Trend_Cart-2+

β3× Google_Trend_Cart-3+

β4× Google_Trend_Cart-4


Strategic capacity planning

Example: Advanced Forecasting Methods

  • Google Flu Trend


Calculating processing requirements

Calculating Processing Requirements

If annual capacity is 2,000 hours/machine, then

Units of capacity needed = 5,800 hours ÷ 2,000 hours = 2.90  3 machines

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Service capacity planning

Service Capacity Planning

  • Service capacity planning can present a number of challenges related to:

    • The need to be near customers

      • Convenience

    • The inability to store services

      • Cannot store services for consumption later

    • The degree of demand volatility

      • Volume and timing of demand

      • Time required to service individual customers

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


In house or outsource

in-house or outsource

  • Once capacity requirements have been determined, the organization must decide whether to produce a good or provide a service itself, or to outsource from another organization.

  • Factors to consider when deciding whether to operate in-house or outsource

    • Available capacity

    • Expertise

    • Quality considerations

    • The nature of demand

    • Cost

    • Risks

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Strategic capacity planning

CASE Study

  • How much would an all-American iPhone cost?

    • NPR Marketplace

      • http://www.marketplace.org/topics/business/ive-always-wondered/how-much-would-all-american-iphone-cost

    • Audio (4:33)

    • Pay attention to:

    • Logistic efficiency

    • Cost structure

    • Components

    • International expertise

    • Consumer base

    • While listening, take notes on the above 5 items

    • Use the notes, discuss why/when a company decides to outsource?


Developing capacity strategies

Developing Capacity Strategies

  • There are a number of ways to enhance development of capacity strategies:

    • Design flexibility into systems

      • E.g., SSD and USB Flash Drive

    • Take a “big-picture” (i.e., systems) approach to capacity changes

    • Attempt to smooth out capacity requirements

    • Take stage of life cycle into account

    • Identify the optimal operating level: economies of scale

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Product life cycle

Product life cycle

  • In the introductionphase,organizations should be cautious in making large and/or inflexible capacity investments.

  • In the growth phase,organizations should consider their market share, competitors’ moves, and establishing competitive advantages.

  • In the maturity phase, organizations may still be able to increase profitability by reducing costs and making full use of capacity.

  • In the declinephase, organizations may eliminate the excess capacity by selling it, or by introducing new products or services.

Sales

Introduction

Growth

Maturity

Decline

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Optimal operating level

Average cost per unit 

Minimum

cost

0

Rate of output 

optimal operating level

  • Diseconomies of Scale

  • If the output rate is more than the optimal level, increasing the output rate results in increasing average per unit costs

  • Economies of Scale

  • If output rate is less than the optimal level, increasing the output rate results in decreasing average per unit costs

Minimum average cost per unit

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Economies of scale

Economies of Scale

  • Economies of Scale

    • If output rate is less than the optimal level, increasing the output rate results in decreasing average per unit costs

    • Reasons for economies of scale:

      • Fixed costs are spread over a larger number of units

      • Processing costs decrease due to standardization

    • There are two types of economies of scale:

      • Internal. These are cost savings that accrue to a firm regardless of the industry, market or environment in which it operates.

        • It is easier for large firms to carry the overheads of sophisticated research and development (R&D). E.g., pharmaceuticals industry

      • External. These are economies that benefit a firm because of the way in which its industry is organized.

        • E.g., The creation of a better transportation network

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Diseconomies of scale

Diseconomies of Scale

  • Diseconomies of Scale

    • If the output rate is more than the optimal level, increasing the output rate results in increasing average per unit costs

    • Reasons for diseconomies of scale

      • Congestion (transportation)

      • Complexity

      • Inflexibility

      • Additional levels of management

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Strategic capacity planning

Discussions

  • Discuss with a partner:

    • What are the examples that a company/product failed because it did not achieve economies of scale (i.e., too small to compete)?

      • If possible, also discuss why they failed to achieve economies of scale. Was it because of the problems in marketing, finance, or operations?

    • What are the examples that a company/product failed because of it encountered diseconomies of scale (i.e., too big to compete)?


Evaluating alternatives

Evaluating Alternatives

  • Alternatives should be evaluated from varying perspectives

    • Economic

      • Is it economically feasible?

      • How much will it cost?

      • How soon can we have it?

      • What will operating and maintenance costs be?

      • Will it be compatible with present personnel and present operations?

    • Non-economic

      • Public opinion

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Evaluating alternatives1

Evaluating Alternatives

  • Techniques for Evaluating Alternatives

    • Cost-volume analysis

      • Break-even point

      • Indifference point

    • Financial analysis

      • Cash flow

      • Present value

    • Decision theory

      • Comparison of alternatives under risk and uncertainty.

    • Waiting-line analysis

      • Balance waiting cost and increased capacity cost

    • Simulation

      • Evaluate “what-if” scenarios

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Cost volume analysis

Cost-Volume Analysis

  • Cost-volume analysis

    • Focuses on the relationship between cost, revenue, and volume of output

      • Fixed Costs (FC)

        • tend to remain constant regardless of output volume

      • Variable Costs (VC)

        • vary directly with volume of output

        • VC = Quantity (Q) x variable cost per unit (v)

      • Total Cost

        • TC = FC + VC

      • Total Revenue (TR)

        • TR = revenue per unit (R) x Q

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Break even point bep

Break-Even Point (BEP)

  • Break-Even-Point (BEP)

    • The volume of output at which total cost and total revenue are equal (profit = 0)

    • Profit (P) = 0 = TR – TC

      = (R × Q) – (FC + v × Q)

      = Q(R – v) – FC

      0 = QBEP(R – v) – FC

Recall:

  • P: Profit

  • Q: Quantity

  • TR: Total Revenue

    • TR = revenue per unit (R) x Q

  • TC: Total Cost

    • TC = FC + VC

  • FC: Fixed Costs

  • VC: Variable Costs

    • VC = Q x variable cost per unit (v)

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Reformulation of the equation

Reformulation of the equation

  • The equation can be easily reformulated to obtain other components of interest:

    • P= TR – TC

      = (R × Q) – (FC + v × Q)

      = Q(R – v) – FC

    • Q= (P + FC) / (R – v)

    • R = (P + FC + v × Q) / Q

Recall:

  • P: Profit

  • Q: Quantity

  • TR: Total Revenue

    • TR = revenue per unit (R) x Q

  • TC: Total Cost

    • TC = FC + VC

  • FC: Fixed Costs

  • VC: Variable Costs

    • VC = Q x variable cost per unit (v)

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Cost volume relationships

Cost-volume relationships

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Cost volume relationships1

Cost-volume relationships

This line shows the difference between TR and TC.

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Strategic capacity planning

Exercise Problems

  • (Textbook page 203) The owner of Old-Fashioned Berry Pies, S. Simon, is contemplating adding a new line of pies, which will require leasing new equipment for a monthly payment of $6,000. Variable costs would be $2 per pie, and pies would retail for $7 each.

    • How many pies must be sold in order to break even?

    • What would the profit (loss) be if 1,000 pies are made and sold in a month?

    • How many pies must be sold to realize a profit of $4,000?

    • If 2,000 can be sold, and a profit target is $5,000, what price should be charged per pie?


Strategic capacity planning

Exercise Solutions

  • (Textbook page 203) The owner of Old-Fashioned Berry Pies, S. Simon, is contemplating adding a new line of pies, which will require leasing new equipment for a monthly payment of $6,000. Variable costs would be $2 per pie, and pies would retail for $7 each.

    • How many pies must be sold in order to break even?

FC = $6000 VC = $2 per pie R = $7 per pie

QBEP = FC / (R – VC) = 6000 / (7 – 2) = 1200 pies/month


Strategic capacity planning

Exercise Solutions

  • (Textbook page 203) The owner of Old-Fashioned Berry Pies, S. Simon, is contemplating adding a new line of pies, which will require leasing new equipment for a monthly payment of $6,000. Variable costs would be $2 per pie, and pies would retail for $7 each.

    • What would the profit (loss) be if 1,000 pies are made and sold in a month?

FC = $6000 VC = $2 per pie R = $7 per pie

For Q = 1000, P = Q(R – v) – FC = 1000(7 – 2) – 6000 = –1000


Strategic capacity planning

Exercise Solutions

  • (Textbook page 203) The owner of Old-Fashioned Berry Pies, S. Simon, is contemplating adding a new line of pies, which will require leasing new equipment for a monthly payment of $6,000. Variable costs would be $2 per pie, and pies would retail for $7 each.

    • How many pies must be sold to realize a profit of $4,000?

FC = $6000 VC = $2 per pie R = $7 per pie

Q = (P + FC) / (R – v) = (4000 + 6000) / (7 – 2) = 2000 pies


Strategic capacity planning

Exercise Solutions

  • (Textbook page 203) The owner of Old-Fashioned Berry Pies, S. Simon, is contemplating adding a new line of pies, which will require leasing new equipment for a monthly payment of $6,000. Variable costs would be $2 per pie, and pies would retail for $7 each.

    • If 2,000 can be sold, and a profit target is $5,000, what price should be charged per pie?

FC = $6000 VC = $2 per pie R = $7 per pie

Profit = Q(R – v) – FC

5000 = 2000(R – 2) – 6000  R = $7.5

  • Another way to solve it:

  • R = (P + FC – v × Q) / Q = (5000 + 6000 + 2 × 2000) / 2000 = 7.5


Indifference point profit two multiple alternatives

Indifference Point (Profit)Two (multiple) Alternatives

  • The quantity at which a decision maker would be indifferent between two competing alternatives

  • Alternative A (in-house)

    • R >> v

    • v low

    • FC high

    • BEP high

  • Alternative B (outsource)

    • R > v

    • v high

    • FC low

    • BEP low

Choose A

Choose B

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Example indifference point

Example: Indifference Point

  • A manufacturer has 3 options:

  • Use process A with FC=$80,000 and v=$75/unit

  • Use process B with FC=$200,000 and v=$15/unit

  • Purchase for $200/units (in other words, FC=$0 and v=$200/unit)

80,000+75Q=200Q

QPA=640 units

80,000+75Q=200,000+15Q

QAB=2,000 units

Choose lowest cost:

0-640 units : Purchase

640-2,000 units: Process A

Above 2,000 units: Process B

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Example indifference point1

Example: Indifference Point

  • A manufacturer has 3 options:

  • Use process A with FC=$80,000 and v=$75/unit

  • Use process B with FC=$200,000 and v=$15/unit

  • Purchase for $200/units (in other words, FC=$0 and v=$200/unit)

80,000+75Q=200Q

QPA=640 units

80,000+75Q=200,000+15Q

QAB=2,000 units

Choose lowest cost:

0-640 units : Purchase

640-2,000 units: Process A

Above 2,000 units: Process B

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


Strategic capacity planning

Exercise Problems

  • A firm's manager must decide whether to make or buy a certain item used in the production of vending machines. Cost and volume estimates are as follows:

    a. Given these numbers, should the firm buy or make this item?

    b. There is a possibility that volume could change in the future. At what volume would the manager be indifferent between making and buying?


Strategic capacity planning

Exercise Solutions

a. Given these numbers, should the firm buy or make this item?

Total cost = Fixed cost + Volume × Variable cost

Make: $150,000 + 12,000 × $60 = $870,000

Buy: $0 + 12,000 × $80 = $960,000

Because the annual cost of making the item is less than the annual cost of buying it, the manager would reasonably choose to make the item.


Strategic capacity planning

Exercise Solutions

b. There is a possibility that volume could change in the future. At what volume would the manager be indifferent between making and buying?

To determine the volume at which the two choices would be equivalent, set the two total costs equal to each other and solve for volume:

TCmake = TCbuy

Thus,

$150,000 + Q($60) = 0 + Q($80).

Solving, Q= 7,500 units.

For lower volumes, the choice would be to buy, and for higher volumes, the choice would be to make


Key points

Key Points

  • Capacity decisions can be critical to the success of a business organization because capacity is the supply side of the supply-demand equation, and too little or too much capacity is costly.

  • The key issues in capacity planning relate to determining what kind of capacity is needed, how much is needed, and when it is needed.

  • Volatile demand and long lead times to achieve capacity changes can be challenging.

  • Cost-volume analysis (break-even point and indifference point) can give useful information for capacity planning.

MIS 373: Basic Operations Management


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