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Distributed Computing. Synchronization. Dr. Yingwu Zhu. Topics to Discuss. Physical vs. Logical Clocks Lamport Clocks Lamport Vector Clocks Mutual Exclusion Algorithms Election Algorithms. Synchronization? What’s for?. Temporal ordering of events produced by concurrent processes

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Synchronization

Distributed Computing

Synchronization

Dr. Yingwu Zhu


Topics to discuss
Topics to Discuss

  • Physical vs. Logical Clocks

    • Lamport Clocks

  • Lamport Vector Clocks

  • Mutual Exclusion Algorithms

  • Election Algorithms


Synchronization what s for
Synchronization? What’s for?

  • Temporal ordering of events produced by concurrent processes

  • Synchronization between senders and receivers of message

    • Msgm1 from process P to Q is sent before or after msgm2 from process Q?

  • Coordination of joint activity

  • Serialization of concurrent access for shared objects (e.g., access to a shared printer)


An ideal world
An Ideal World

  • All machines’ clocks are perfectly synchronized, synchronization is really easy!


Clock synchronization example
Clock Synchronization Example

  • In centralized systems, no problem for the above Make program

  • In distributed systems, when each machine has its own clock, an event that occurred after another event may nevertheless be assigned an earlier time.


Logical vs physical clocks
Logical vs. Physical Clocks

  • Logical clock keeps track of event ordering

    • Among related (causal) events

    • Do not care the real time where events occurred

  • Physical clock keeps time of day

    • Consistent across systems


Physical clock timer in computers
Physical Clock (timer) in Computers

  • Real-time Clock: CMOS clock (counter) circuit driven by a quartz oscillator

    • battery backup to continue measuring time when power is off

  • OS generally programs a timer circuit to generate an interrupt periodically

    • e.g., 60, 100, 250, 1000 interrupts per second(Linux 2.6+ adjustable up to 1000 Hz)

    • Programmable Interval Timer (PIT) –Intel 8253, 8254

    • Interrupt service procedure adds 1 to a counter in memory


Physical clock problems
Physical Clock Problems

  • Getting two systems to agree on time

    • Two clocks hardly ever agree

    • Quartz oscillators oscillate at slightly different frequencies

  • Clocks tick at different rates

    • Create ever-widening gap in perceived time

    • Clock Drift

  • Difference between two clocks at one point in time

    • Clock Skew


Clock drift
Clock Drift

Frequencies of perfect, slow and fast clocks


Dealing with drift
Dealing with Drift

  • Assume we set computer to true time

  • Not good idea to set clock back

    • Illusion of time moving backwards can confuse message ordering and software development environments


Dealing with drift1
Dealing with Drift

  • Go for gradual clock correction

    • If fast:

      • Make clock run slower until it synchronizes

    • If slow:

      • Make clock run faster until it synchronizes

  • Clock synchronization, e.g., Linear compensation function



Getting accurate time
Getting Accurate Time

  • Attach GPS receiver to each computer

    ±1 msec of UTC (Universal Coordinated Time)

  • Attach WWV radio receiver

    Obtain time broadcasts from Boulder or DC

    ±3 msec of UTC (depending on distance)

  • Attach GOES receiver

    ±0.1 msec of UTC

  • Not practical solution for every machine

    • Cost, size, convenience, environment


Practical clock synchronization
Practical Clock Synchronization

  • NTP (Network Time Protocol)

  • Berkeley algorithm


Clock synchronization network time protocol ntp
Clock Synchronization: Network Time Protocol (NTP)

  • Synchronize from another machine

    • One with a more accurate clock

  • Machine/service that provides time information:

    Time server (w/ WWV receiver)


Clock synchronization ntp
Clock Synchronization: NTP

Assumption: latency AB and BA is same, and good estimate!

Offset of A to B: theta = T3 - [(T2-T1) + (T4-T3)] / 2

Delay estimate: delta = [(T2-T1) + (T4-T3)] / 2, keeps the minimum one!

Adjust gradually: e.g., to slow down, add a smaller time for each interrupt


Clock synchronization the berkeley algorithm
Clock Synchronization: The Berkeley Algorithm

  • The time server is active, polling every machine periodically for their time

  • Based on responses, it computes an average time and tell every machine to adjust their clocks

  • Used scenarios: No machine has a WWV receiver

  • All machines agree on the same time, but not necessarily the real time


The berkeley algorithm 1
The Berkeley Algorithm (1)

  • The time daemon asks all the other machines for their clock values.


The berkeley algorithm 2
The Berkeley Algorithm (2)

  • The machines answer.


The berkeley algorithm 3
The Berkeley Algorithm (3)

The time daemon tells everyone how to adjust their clock.


Logical clocks
Logical Clocks

  • In a classic paper (1978), Lamport showed

    • Although clock synchronization is possible, it need not be absolute

    • If two processes do not interact, it is not necessary that their clocks be synchronized!

    • More importantly, the processes should agree on the order in which events occur! This matters!


Logical clocks1
Logical Clocks

  • Assign sequence numbers to messages

    • All cooperating processes can agree on order of events

    • vs. physical clocks: time of day

  • Assume NO central time source

    • Each system maintains its own local clock

    • No total ordering of events

    • No concept of happened-when


Lamport s logical clocks 1
Lamport’s Logical Clocks (1)

  • The "happens-before" relation → can be observed directly in two situations:

  • If a and b are events in the same process, and a occurs before b, then a → bis true.

  • If a is the event of a message being sent by one process, and b is the event of the message being received by another process, then a → b

  • Happens-beforeis transitive: if a  b and b c then a c


Logical clocks concurrency
Logical clocks & concurrency

  • Assign “clock” value to each event

    • if ab then clock(a) < clock(b)

    • since time cannot run backwards

  • If a and b occur on different processes that do not exchange messages, then neither a  b nor ba are true

    • These events are concurrent


Lamport s logical clocks 11
Lamport’s Logical Clocks (1)

(a) Three processes, each with its own clock. The clocks run at different rates.

Lamport clocks: Counters or Sequence numbers


Lamport s logical clocks 2
Lamport’s Logical Clocks (2)

(b) Lamport’s algorithm corrects the clocks (by adding 1).


Lamport s logical clocks 3
Lamport’s Logical Clocks (3)

  • Figure 6-10. The positioning of Lamport’s logical clocks in distributed systems.


Lamport s logical clocks 4
Lamport’s Logical Clocks (4)

  • Updating the local counter Ci for process Pi

  • Each process maintains a local counter

  • Before executing an event Pi executes Ci ← Ci + 1.

  • When process Pi sends a message m to Pj, it sets m’s timestamp ts (m) equal to Ci after having executed the previous step.

  • Upon the receipt of a message m, process Pjadjusts its own local counter as Cj ← max{Cj , ts (m)}, after which it then executes the first step and delivers the message to the application.


Lamport s algorithm
Lamport’s algorithm

  • Each message carries a timestamp of the sender’s clock

  • When a message arrives:

    • if receiver’s clock < message timestamp, set system clock to (message timestamp + 1)

    • else do nothing

  • Clock must be advanced between any two events in the same process


Lamport s algorithm1
Lamport’s algorithm

  • Algorithm allows us to maintain time ordering among related events

    • Partial ordering


Summary
Summary

  • Algorithm needs monotonically increasing software counter

  • Incremented at least when events that need to be timestamped occur

  • Each event has a Lamport timestamp attached to it

  • For any two events, where ab: C(a) < C(b)


Example totally ordered multicasting
Example: Totally Ordered Multicasting

Updating a replicated database and leaving it in an inconsistent state.

  • Totally Ordered Multicasting:

    • all msgs are delivered in the same order to each receiver!

    • Can be implemented by Lamport’s logical clocks (multicast messages and acks, msg queue ordered by timestamp, msg delivered to app if it is the first and acks from all nodes are received)


Problems
Problems

  • Identical timestamps: two events could be concurrent

  • Detect causal relations

    • If C(e) < C(e’), cannot conclude that ee’

    • Looking at Lamport timestamps, cannot conclude which events are causally related

  • Solution: use a vector clock


Vector clocks 1
Vector Clocks (1)

  • Concurrent message transmission using logical clocks.

  • Trcv(m1) < Tsnd(m2), but m1 and m2 are concurrent

  • Lamport clocks do not capture causality!


Vector clocks 2
Vector Clocks (2)

  • Vector clocks are constructed by letting each process Pi maintain a vector VCi with the following two properties:

  • VCi [ i ] is the number of events that have occurred so far at Pi. In other words, VCi [ i ] is the local logical clock at process Pi .

  • If VCi [ j ] = k then Piknows that k events have occurred at Pj. It is thus Pi’s knowledge of the local time at Pj .

    If VC[a] < VC[b] then event a  event b


Vector clocks 3
Vector Clocks (3)

  • Steps carried out to accomplish property 2 of previous slide:

  • Before executing an event Pi executes VCi [ i ] ← VCi [i ] + 1.

  • When process Pi sends a message m to Pj, it sets m’s (vector) timestamp ts (m) equal to VCi after having executed the previous step.

  • Upon the receipt of a message m, process Pj adjusts its own vector by setting VCj [k ] ← max{VCj [k ], ts (m)[k ]} for each k, after which it executes the first step and delivers the message to the application.


Enforcing causal communication
Enforcing Causal Communication

  • Figure 6-13. Enforcing causal communication.

  • Causally ordered multicasting: weaker than totally ordered multicasting; if 2 msgs are not related to each other, we do not care in which order they are delivered to apps.

  • Assume clocks are adjusted only when sending/receiving msgs. Sending by incrementingthe item in the VC by 1; receiving only by adjusting to max for all components in VC. A msg from process i is delivered to apps only the following 2 conditions are met:

  • 1) ts(m)[i] = VCj [i ] + 1 2) ts(m)[k] <= VCj[k] for all k != i


Mutual exclusion a centralized algorithm
Mutual ExclusionA Centralized Algorithm

(a) Process 1 asks the coordinator for permission to access a shared resource. Permission is granted.

(b)Process 2 then asks permission to access the same resource. The coordinator does not reply.

(c) When process 1 releases the resource, it tells the coordinator, which then replies to 2.


Mutual exclusion a centralized algorithm1
Mutual ExclusionA Centralized Algorithm

  • Simple: 3 messages: request, grant, release

  • Downsides

    • Simple point of failures

    • Performance bottleneck


Mutual exclusion a distributed algorithm
Mutual Exclusion : A Distributed Algorithm

  • The requestor broadcasts a message containing the requested resource, process id, and logical time

  • Three different cases:

  • If the receiver is not accessing the resource and does not want to access it, it sends back an OK message to the sender.

  • If the receiver already has access to the resource, it simply does not reply. Instead, it queues the request.

  • If the receiver wants to access the resource as well but has not yet done so, it compares the timestamp of the incoming message with the one contained in the message that it has sent everyone. The lowest one wins. (Lamport’s clock vector to implement tm)


Mutual exclusion a distributed algorithm1
Mutual Exclusion A Distributed Algorithm

  • Two processes want to access a shared resource at the same moment.

  • Process 0 has the lowest timestamp, so it wins.

  • When process 0 is done, it sends an OK also, so 2 can now go ahead.


Mutual exclusion a distributed algorithm2
Mutual Exclusion A Distributed Algorithm

  • Message complexity: 2(n-1) per entry

  • Magnify the single point of failure problem in centralized algorithms (n points)

  • Group membership is known

  • Bottleneck: each machine handles same load, but machines may be heterogeneous


Mutual exclusion a token ring algorithm
Mutual Exclusion A Token Ring Algorithm

  • (a) An unordered group of processes on a network. (b) A logical ring constructed in software.


Mutual exclusion a token ring algorithm1
Mutual Exclusion A Token Ring Algorithm

  • Problems

    • Lost tokens, how to detect them?

    • Process failures, how to detect them?


Election algorithms
Election Algorithms

  • Many distributed systems require one process to act as coordinator/initiator, or perform some special role

  • Elect one to fit into that role

  • In general, election algorithms attempt to locate the process with the highest process number as the coordinator

  • Traditional alg. assumes: message passing is reliable; network topology does not change


Election algorithms1
Election Algorithms

  • The Bully Algorithm

  • P sends an ELECTION message to all processes with higher numbers.

  • If no one responds, P wins the election and becomes coordinator.

  • If one of the higher-ups answers, it takes over. P’s job is done.


The bully algorithm 1
The Bully Algorithm (1)

(a) Process 4 holds an election.

(b) Processes 5 and 6 respond, telling 4 to stop.

(c) Now 5 and 6 each hold an election.


The bully algorithm 2
The Bully Algorithm (2)

  • (d) Process 6 tells 5 to stop.

  • (e) Process 6 wins and tells everyone.


Election a ring algorithm
Election: A Ring Algorithm

  • Figure 6-21. Election algorithm using a ring.

After discovering crash of the old coordinator, some process initiate the ELECTION message circulating the ring (containing process numbers whose processes saw the message)

Then, the COORDINATOR message is circulating again, containing all the members, the process with the highest number is the new coordinator


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