Early church to the reformation
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 170

Early Church to the Reformation PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 54 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Early Church to the Reformation. Part II. B. Theologians Become Activists. The 2 nd half of the 4 th c. witnessed the flowering of the golden age of the Church Fathers. This was the period of the greatest writers & thinkers of Xtian antiquity.

Download Presentation

Early Church to the Reformation

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Early church to the reformation

Early Church to the Reformation

Part II


B theologians become activists

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • The 2nd half of the 4th c. witnessed the flowering of the golden age of the Church Fathers.

  • This was the period of the greatest writers & thinkers of Xtian antiquity.

  • But they were not just thinkers & writers; they were actively involved in shaping the destiny of both state and church.

  • They considered practically every issue, local or universal.


B theologians become activists1

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • Theological issues & scriptural expositions were brought into the midst of social, political and ecclesiastical controversies.

  • These great theologians were contemporaries & many had direct relations with others or exercised mutual influence wielded by this group.


B theologians become activists2

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 1. Athanasius (c. 296-373)

    • A. was the outstanding obstacle to the triumph of Arianism in the East.

    • His career began when, as secretary to Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria, he attended the Council of Nicaea in 325.

    • He succeeded Alexander as bishop in 328 & refused to compromise with Arianism.

    • He was deposed & exiled to Trier in 336.

    • He returned on the death of Constantine in 337, but in 339 was forced to flee to Rome.


Early church to the reformation

Athanasius


B theologians become activists3

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 1. Athanasius (c. 296-373)

    • He was restored in 346 by Constans, but Constantius drove him out again in 356.

    • He remained in hiding until the accession of Julian (361), who exiled him again in 362.

    • He returned on Julian’s death in 363, & after another brief exile (356-66), he worked the rest of his life to build up the new Nicene party, which triumphed over Arianism at the Council of Constantinople in 381.

    • He died in Alexandria in May 373.


B theologians become activists4

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 1. Athanasius (c. 296-373)

    • A. is remembered for his role in preserving orthodoxy in the ch’s trinitarian theology.

    • While in his 20s he wrote De Incarnatione, in which he showed how God the Word, by his union with manhood, restored fallen man to the image of God, & by his death & resurrection met & overcame death, the consequence of sin.

    • He was the greatest & most consistent opponent of Arianism, against which he wrote a series of works from 339-359.


B theologians become activists5

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 1. Athanasius (c. 296-373)

    • He also upheld the deity of the HS and the full manhood of X against Macedonian & Apollinarian tendencies.

    • He aided the ascetic movement of monasticism, & generally strengthened the spirituality as well as the orthodoxy of the church.


B theologians become activists6

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 2. Ambrose (c. 339-97)

    • A. was a practicing lawyer when he was appointed governor of Aemiloia-Liguria, with his seat at Milan.

    • When Auxentius, the Arian bishop of Milan, died in 374, the laity demanded that Ambrose succeed him.

    • As bishop, he was famous as preacher & renowned as an upholder of orthodoxy.

    • He is credited mainly with the conversion of Augustine (386).


Early church to the reformation

Ambrose

(c. 339-397)


B theologians become activists7

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 2. Ambrose (c. 339-97)

    • Political & ch events involved him personally with the rulers of the western empire, & he had great influence with Gratian, Maximus, Justina, & Theodosius I.

    • He fought paganism & Arianism, maintained the independence of the ch from civil power, & championed morality.

    • His most notable work was De Officiis Ministorrum, a work on Xtian ethics with special reference to the clergy.


B theologians become activists8

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 2. Ambrose (c. 339-97)

    • He wrote on ascetic subjects, encouraged monasticism, wrote several well-known Latin hymns, & through his knowledge of Gk, introduced much eastern theology into the West.

    • Ambrose is one of the 4 traditional doctors of the Latin church, the other 3 being Jerome, Augustine and Gregory the Great.


B theologians become activists9

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 3. Jerome (c. 342-420)

    • J. was one of the greatest biblical scholars of the early ch.

    • He originally devoted himself to an ascetic life, settled as a hermit into the Syrian desert, & learned Hebrew.

    • On his return to Antioch, he was ordained a priest, spent some time in Constantinople, & eventually became secretary to Pope (Bishop) Damasus.


Early church to the reformation

Jerome

(c. 342-420)


Early church to the reformation

Jerome in his study

French, c. 1495-1515


Early church to the reformation

The Penitence of St. Jerome

Albrecht Altdorfer

1507


B theologians become activists10

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 3. Jerome (c. 342-420)

    • After Damasus’ death, he visited Antioch, Egypt, & Palestine.

    • In 386 he finally settled in Bethlehem, where he ruled the men’s monastery & devoted the rest of his life to study & writing.

    • His greatest achievement was his translation of the Bible into Latin from the original languages.

    • Known as the Vulgate, it was finished around 404.


B theologians become activists11

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 3. Jerome (c. 342-420)

    • The Vulgate was established by the Council of Trent in the mid 1500s as the official Roman Catholic version of the Bible—remains so today.

    • J. also wrote 3 revisions of the psalter, many biblical commentaries, a bibliography of ecclesiastical writers, translated the works of Origen & Didymus into Latin, developed the relationship of the Apocrypha to the Hebrew canon, & translated & continued Eusebius’ Chronicle of Church History.


B theologians become activists12

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 3. Jerome (c. 342-420)

    • Although he advocated extreme asceticism, he was personally involved in many passionate attacks against Arianism, Pelagianism and Origenism.

    • Jerome’s scholarship & dedication were unsurpassed in the early church & set models for all succeeding theological writers.


B theologians become activists13

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 4. John Chrysostom (c. 347-407)

    • C. was bishop of Constantinople & a renowned preacher.

    • His powers of oratory earned him the name of Chrysostom, “the golden-mouth.”

    • He combined his preaching ability with dedicated scholarship & his series of “homilies” on various books of the Bible established him as the greatest Xtian expositor of his day.


Early church to the reformation

John Chrysostom

(c. 347-407)


B theologians become activists14

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 4. John Chrysostom (c. 347-407)

    • He saw the meaning of scripture & at the same time was able to make practical application.

    • He was made patriarch of Constantinople in 398, & set about reforming the city from its corruption of court, clergy and society.

    • His honesty, asceticism, & tactlessness won him many enemies; chief among them were Theophilus, the unworthy patriarch of Alexandria & the Empress Eudoxia, who took all attempts at moral reform as a censure of herself.


B theologians become activists15

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 4. John Chrysostom (c. 347-407)

    • They succeeded in having him removed from his post and banished.

    • Although he was supported by the people of Constantinople, Pope Innocent I, & the entire Western ch, he was exiled to Antioch, moved to Pontus, & finally deliberately killed by enforced travel on foot in severe weather.

    • He has been remembered for his personal holiness, his matchless preaching, his scholarly exegesis, & his liturgical reforms.


B theologians become activists16

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 4. John Chrysostom (c. 347-407)

    • His work On the Priesthood is a good description of the responsibilities of the Christian minister.


B theologians become activists17

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • The theological development of this period reached its zenith in the person of Aurelius Augustine, bishop of Hippo, whom many rank as second only to the Apostle Paul in the development of western Christian theology.

    • Aquinas, Luther, Calvin and Pascal drew heavily on him.


Early church to the reformation

Augustine of Hippo


Early church to the reformation

Augustine

(from Andre Thevet)


B theologians become activists18

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • a. The Conversion of Augustine.

    • He was born in North Africa of a pagan father & a Xtian mother, Monica.

    • He received a Xtian education, studied to become a lawyer, but decided instead on literary pursuits.

    • He left Xtianity and took a mistress, to whom he was faithful for 15 yrs, having a son by her.


B theologians become activists19

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • a. The Conversion of Augustine.

    • Writings of Cicero awakened an intense interest in philosophy & he soon became a Manichaean, which he remained for 9 yrs.

    • Disillusioned by the all-too-simple Manichaean explanation of evil in terms of matter, he left them & Africa.

    • He went to Rome & opened a school of rhetoric, where he became disgusted by the behavior of his pupils, & left for a professorship at Milan.


B theologians become activists20

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • a. The Conversion of Augustine.

    • By the time he arrived in Milan, he was embracing the philosophy of the “Academics,” which denied the possibility of attaining absolute truths.

    • A little later he became a Neo-Platonist & drew nearer to Xtianity.

    • He was attracted to the preaching of Ambrose, bishop of Milan, for the literary quality of his sermons & for the biblical answers given to many of his objections.


B theologians become activists21

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • a. The Conversion of Augustine.

    • When he heard of the conversion of the Neo-Platonist philosopher Victorinus to Xtianity, A. turned in earnest to search the NT.

    • A major obstacle to becoming a Xtian was his moral incontinence.

    • Although he had dismissed his concubine at his mother’s insistence, he had entered another illicit affair.

    • Another obstacle was his concern about “inconsistencies” in the Bible.


B theologians become activists22

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • a. The Conversion of Augustine.

    • With great heaviness of heart (a “sickness unto death”) A. went alone one day to a garden, where he tore his hair & beat his breast.

    • He had been deeply moved and shamed by the story of Anthony & the Egyptians hermits, & how they withstood temptation.

    • From next door he heard a child crooning, Tolle, lege” (“take up and read”).


B theologians become activists23

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • a. The Conversion of Augustine.

    • He then saw a copy of the NT on a bench, & opening it to Romans 13:13, he read: “Not in reveling and drunkenness, not in debauchery and licentiousness, not in quarreling and jealousy. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ and make no provision for the flesh to gratify its desires.”

    • The verse enabled him to surrender himself completely to X.


Early church to the reformation

This version of

Augustine’s garden

conversion comes

from Gozzoli (1424-

1497). He is reading

from Romans 13:14.


In the garden in milan augustine s conversion

In the Garden in Milan (Augustine’s Conversion)

In the artist’s mystical interpretation, Augustine, seated in the garden in Milan, sees childlike angelic beings calling him to “Tolle lege, tolle lege” (Take up and read, take up an read) the Scriptures. The Bible is open to Romans 13:13-14, “Not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying; but put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, in concupiscence.”

“No further would I read; nor needed I: for instantly at the end of this sentence, by a light as it were of serenity infused into my heart, all the darkness of doubt vanished away.”


Early church to the reformation

This picture, taken from a fresco on a wall

of the Lateran Palace, is thought to be the

oldest known portrait of Augustine—perhaps

based on an image taken from his own signet

ring.

A. is dressed in a tunic, mantle and sandals,

thus being depicted as a scholar rather than

as a bishop. In his left hand he holds a

scroll; with his right hand he makes an orator-

ical gesture toward the great book open on

the lectern. The scroll alludes to his own

works; the great book to the greatest of

books, the Bible.

The Latin inscription at the bottom reads:

“The different fathers said different things,

but with Roman eloquence this man said all

things, thundering forth the sense of the

mysteries.”

The painter did not think it necessary to use

Augustine’s name in the painting. The lauda-

tory inscription was thought sufficient to

identify Augustine.


B theologians become activists24

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • a. The Conversion of Augustine.

    • He viewed the conversion experience as comparable to that of Paul on the road to Damascus.

    • Several months later he & his son Adeodatus were baptized by Ambrose.

    • With his mother & son he set out for Africa, but his mother died in route & his son died shortly after arriving in Africa.

    • A. entered the monastery at Tagaste.


B theologians become activists25

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • a. The Conversion of Augustine.

    • He became a priest in 391, but continued to live the monastic life until he was consecrated coadjutor bishop to Valerius, bishop of Hippo, & after 396 served as the sole bishop of Hippo.

    • At Hippo he commenced his outstanding career as administrator, pastor, and theologian.


B theologians become activists26

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • A. was confronted with 4 major controversial issues & it was mainly through his struggles with these issues that his own theology was formed.

    • Manichaeism was the 1st & least dangerous.

    • A. embraced M. for 9 yrs before his conversion & later strongly opposed its simplistic concepts of light & dark & good & evil.


B theologians become activists27

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • Now he opposed the Manichaean attempt to solve the problem of evil by positing an evil agency eternally opposed to the good God.

    • A. maintained that God was the sole creator & sustainer of all things, that evil is the privation of some good which ought to be had, & that moral evil springs from free will.


B theologians become activists28

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • The Donatist controversy was more urgent because of the deep divisions it had caused in the African church.

    • The D. issue was almost a century old, dating from the traditore controversy of the persecution era.

    • The issue was whether or not the sacraments were valid if administered by unholy men.


B theologians become activists29

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • The D. insisted that sacraments administered by traditores (those who had given up the Scriptures in the Diocletian persecution), unholy men, or heretics, were invalid.

    • And since theirs was the only ch which maintained its purity on this issue, the D. claimed to be the one true ch.

    • A. refuted this claim & taught that the sacraments are X’s, & the validity of the sacraments rests in the sacrament itself & not the administrator.


B theologians become activists30

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • He acknowledged that unholy persons were in the ch, as the parable of the wheat & tares indicated, but the D. were wrong in trying to claim final blessedness now.

    • This led A. to define a sacrament as a sign of the invisible grace of God in which God forgives sin.

    • He finally urged the state to force the D. back into the fold of orthodoxy, quoting Lk 14:23, “Compel them to come in.”


B theologians become activists31

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • Since he believed the ch is superior to the state, he believed that the state should execute the commandments of God, as instructed by the church.

    • A’s later yrs were taken up with the Pelagian controversy.

    • Pelagius was a very moral & learned lay monk who came to Rome from the British Isles about 385.


B theologians become activists32

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • Shocked by the low morality of Rome, Pelagius devoted his preaching & writing to the issues of morality and sin.

    • He denied the idea of inherited sin, stating that Adam’s sin was a bad example which men have chosen to follow, that sin is really self-generated.

    • Actually, man could be sinless if he so desired, thus placing salvation in the hands of man himself.


B theologians become activists33

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • P. was condemned for his teaching by two African councils & then excommunicated by Pope Innocent in 417.

    • The chief heresies with which P. was charged was:

      • 1) that Adam would have died even if he had not sinned.

      • 2) that the sin of Adam injured himself alone & not the whole human racel.

      • 3) that newborn children are in the same condition as Adam was before he fell.


B theologians become activists34

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • The chief heresies with which P. was charged was:

      • 4) that the whole human race does not die because of Adam’s death or sin, nor will it rise again because of X’s resurrection.

      • 5) that the law as well as the gospel offers entrance to heaven.

      • 6) that even before the coming of X there were men wholly without sin.


B theologians become activists35

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • P. developed much of his theology as a reaction to Augustine’s often quoted prayer in his Confessions: “Grant what Thou commandes and command what Thou wilt.”

    • P. inferred this to means that man is not responsible for good or evil deeds, that it is all in the hands of God.

    • If this is so, man’s entire moral structure was imperiled, for it served as an invitation to indulge in sin.


B theologians become activists36

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • Refuting P., A. maintained that man was created with certain supernatural gifts which were lost by the fall of Adam; and, as a result, man suffers from a hereditary moral disease, is subject to the inherited legal liability of Adam’s sin, and can be saved from these evils solely by the grace of God.

    • P. drove A. to a belief in predestination, irresistible grace, & divine control of all that happens.


B theologians become activists37

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • Most of A’s theology on sin & salvation was worked out as a reaction to P., which he refuted with minute exegesis of the biblical text.

    • Paganism became another major adversary for A. with the fall of Rome to Alaric in 410.

    • This even caused great consternation throughout the civilized world, & pagans blamed the fall on Xtians who had abolished heathen worship.


B theologians become activists38

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • They contended that the pagan gods were at last venting their wrath.

    • A. took it upon himself to reply to the pagan charge, producing in his reply the monumental 22-book work, The City of God.

    • For A., there were 2 major questions concerning the fall of Rome:

    • 1) Why had God allowed this to happen?

    • 2) Should Xtians have recourse to war to repulse the barbarians?


B theologians become activists39

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • In answer to the 1st question, A. emphatically rejected the notion that Xtians were to blame, & demonstrated how Rome, through the sovereign will of God, had fallen because of her own crimes.

    • To the 2nd q., he was emphatic again in justifying the right of Xtians to take arms against the barbarians under these conditions:


B theologians become activists40

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • b. Augustine’s Controversies.

    • 1) if the object is to vindicate justice & restore peace.

    • 2) if the motive is love.

    • 3) if the war is just (which means that one side must be unjust).

    • A. envisioned a world in which the state, through its power of government (even war if necessary), made society a safe & stable place where the ch could apply its teachings & principles.


B theologians become activists41

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • c. Augustine’s Contributions.

    • The literary contributions of A. are overwhelming in their volume alone.

    • His best known works are The Confessions, The City of God, and The Enchiridion, but he also wrote 14 treatises against the Manichaeans, 6 against the Donatists, & 14 against the Pelagians, in addition to a number of philosophical works, & numerous sermons, letters, and commentaries.


B theologians become activists42

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • c. Augustine’s Contributions.

    • The City of God volumes follow a clear & purposeful outline.

    • The 1st 5 books refute the charge that Rome was destroyed because of the Xtian ban on pagan worship.

    • The next 5 demonstrate the worthlessness of worshipping pagan deities.

    • Books 11-14 trace the rise of the divine & earthly cities.


B theologians become activists43

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • c. Augustine’s Contributions.

    • Books 15-18 show the growth of these cities.

    • Books 19-22 demonstrate their proper ends.

    • The analysis of the 2 cities is always set against the backdrop of God’s action in history.

    • For A., history had its beginning in creation, its climax in the coming of X, & its conclusion in the day of judgment.


B theologians become activists44

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • c. Augustine’s Contributions.

    • The Confessions was written shortly before 400 & is the story of A’s life before & including his conversion.

    • It is the world’s 1st spiritual autobiography, tracing his tortuous course in searching for meaning & happiness.

    • In describing his search, he sees himself as representing all mankiind, as an example of man’s corruption, redemption and continuing imperfection.


B theologians become activists45

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • c. Augustine’s Contributions.

    • the culmination of his search is the famous conclusion that man is restless & cannot find rest until he rests in God.

    • A’s formative theological contributions are influential to this day.

    • His doctrines of original sin & salvation by grace alone were highly influential on Luther.

    • His conclusions about predestination led Calvin in further elaborations on this theme.


B theologians become activists46

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • c. Augustine’s Contributions.

    • A’s concepts of society, especially the relationship of ch & state, continue to influence politics and ecclesiology.

    • His support of just wars stamped him as the father of the war-guilt theory.

    • He is credited with giving definitive shape to the Catholic teaching against birth control, maintaining that the primary purpose of marriage is procreation.


B theologians become activists47

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • c. Augustine’s Contributions.

    • He firmly entrenched infant baptism by insisting that babies who die unbaptized go into everlasting perdition.

    • He drew guidelines for ecclesiastical & theological authority which are still in use.

    • His infoluence on the sacraments and ecclesiology of the Roman Catholic Church has been profound & lasting.


B theologians become activists48

B. Theologians Become Activists

  • 5. Augustine (354-430)

    • c. Augustine’s Contributions.

    • A’s views on grace & predestination, ch & state, war & peace, sex & marriage, & tolerance & constraint, continue to make their impact on each succeeding generation in the western ch, whether Catholic or Protestant.


C bishops become popes

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • In addition to the rise of the state-church & the development of formative theology, this extremely important period of history also produced the unmistakable patterns of ecclesiastical organization, including the papal hierarchy.

  • 1. Political and Church Organization

  • After Theodosius made Xtianity the official religion of the state, the bishops organized the ch on the basis of the political organization of the empire.


C bishops become popes1

C. Bishops Become Popes

1. Political and Church Organization

  • City territory the smallest unit in the political administration; and the diocese, embracing the city territory, was the smallest unit in ch administration.

  • It was headed by a bishop.

  • Over the city territory was the province with its provincial governor; and the corresponding ch office was that of the metropolitan (archbishop), led by the provincial city.


C bishops become popes2

C. Bishops Become Popes

1. Political and Church Organization

  • Several provinces were governed by an imperial governor (vicarius); the ch’s corresponding officer was the patriarch (cardinal).

  • The imperial council (senate) had its counterpart in the assembly of patriarchs (college of cardinals).

  • Eventually the emperor found his ecclesiastical counterpart in the pope.


C bishops become popes3

C. Bishops Become Popes

1. Political and Church Organization

  • When the 1st Catholic (universal or ecumenical) Council met in Nicaea in 325, very distinct characteristics surfaced which permanently shaped a great portion of Christendom.

  • These included:

  • 1) the idea of a visible universal ch composed of the bishops.

  • 2) the belief that the sacraments (as they now were called) carries a supernatural power of transforming grace.


C bishops become popes4

C. Bishops Become Popes

1. Political and Church Organization

  • 3) the employment of a special priesthood, the clergy, which had sole authority to administer the sacraments.

  • 4) the recognition of the bishops as the ruling officers (episcopal government).

  • All of these characteristics are still observed by Roman Catholics, Greek Catholics, and Anglo-Catholics.


C bishops become popes5

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 2. Presumed Basis For The Papacy

    • It is impossible to document a precise date for the beg. of the papacy.

    • While the Catholic Ch insists that Peter was the 1st pope, others look to Leo the Great or perhaps Damasus, but hardly ever anyone earlier than Stephen of Rome.

    • Toward the end of the 2nd c., Irenaeus stated the case for apostolic succession clearly & forcefully.

    • I. had known Polycarp, b. of Smyrna, who claimed to have been instructed by the apostles & to have talked with many who had seen X.


C bishops become popes6

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 2. Presumed Basis For The Papacy

    • I. was convinced that the apostles had transmitted faithfully & accurately what had been taught by X.

    • And furthermore, he believed they had appointed as their successors bishops to whom they had committed the churches.

    • The bishops had been followed by others in unbroken line.

    • In the 1st quarter of the 4th c., Eusebius gave the lists of the bishops of the chs, indicating the importance of the succession theory.


Early church to the reformation

Eusebius

Of

Caesarea

(from Andre

Thevet)


C bishops become popes7

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 2. Presumed Basis For The Papacy

    • When Xtianity was troubled by heresy & schism, the bishops began meeting together for consultation & common action.

    • In this fashion it dealt with the heresies of Gnosticism, Marcionism, & Montanism, & in the process developed an administrative system centered around its bishops.

    • Thus, the idea of papal primacy—among other things—evolved from the notion of apostolic succession, which applied to all bishops.


C bishops become popes8

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 2. Presumed Basis For The Papacy

    • Tertullian also strengthened the concept of apostolic succession by insisting that only those chs were valid which agreed in their teaching with those founded by the apostles & where faith had been kept pure by a succession of bishops going back to the apostles.

    • Cyprian, bishop of Carthage in the 3rd c., held that there was only one true ch, authenticated by the presence of the bishop, & that anyone who was not with the bishop was not in the ch, & therefore not a Xtian.


Early church to the reformation

Cyprian

of

Carthage


C bishops become popes9

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 2. Presumed Basis For The Papacy

    • Cyprian regarded all bishops as equal, but esteemed the bishop of Rome as the first among equals.


C bishops become popes10

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 3. The Preeminence of Rome

    • The Council of Nicaea in 325 had designated the bishops of Rome, Alexandria, & Antioch as “superior” metropolitans (patriarchs), but the bishop of Rome refused to be listed as equal, insisting that it had always held primacy.

    • Between this 1st council & the 4th held in Chalcedon in 451, the Roman bishops laid the foundation for the ecclesiastical monarchy, which exists to this day.

    • The Roman ch claimed not only human but divine right for supremacy—that X gave Peter the eminent position in founding the church.


C bishops become popes11

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 3. The Preeminence of Rome

    • It was claimed that he Peter a supremacy of authority over the other apostles, that this supremacy was official, hereditary, & transferable.

    • It was believed that P. was bishop of Rome until his martyrdom, that he appointed his successor, & that all bishops of Rome, as successors of Peter, have enjoyed & exercised universal jurisdiction over all other churches.

    • Though disputed, the practical & political supremacy of Rome prevailed.


C bishops become popes12

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 3. The Preeminence of Rome

    • Some claim the 1st e.g. of a papal attitude is found in Clement (d.102) (in the Apostolic Fathers collection).

    • Dealing with the issue of deposed presbyters in the Corinthian ch, Clement called for repentance & insisted that God required the deposed presbyters be reinstated & legitimate superiors obeyed.

    • Ignatius (c. 35-107), bishop of Antioch, in Ep. to the Romans, ascribes laudatory titles to the Roman ch, but does not mention Clement or any other bishop.


C bishops become popes13

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 3. The Preeminence of Rome

    • Irenaeus (c. 130-220), bishop of Lyons, called Rome the greatest ch, acknowledged by all & founded by Peter & Paul.

    • However, I. rebuked Victor, b. of Rome, in 190 for forcing uniformity on the chs of Asia Minor.

    • Tertullian (c. 160-220), in confrontation with the heretics, pointed to the apostolic mother chs as the repositories of true doctrine, with special commendation for the ch of Rome.


C bishops become popes14

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 3. The Preeminence of Rome

    • Later, however, T. opposed R. for its loose penitential discipline.

    • Cyprian (d. 258) called the R. ch the chair of Peter, the foundation of priestly unity, & mother of the Catholic Church.

    • He still insisted, however, on the equality of other bishops & opposed Stephen of R. in the controversy over heretical baptism.

    • The growing influence of the Roman ch & bishop seems to have been rooted in the need for unity in the early church.


C bishops become popes15

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 3. The Preeminence of Rome

    • Historical & practical reasons also contributed to the ascendancy of Rome.

    • Located in the geographical & political center of the world, the R. bishop enjoyed a unique prestige.

    • Since AD 100, the congregation in R. was probably the largest in Christendom.

    • It was wealthy, hospitable to strangers, & generous to the poor.

    • Successful opposition to Gnosticism, Arianism & Montanism gave it added prestige.


C bishops become popes16

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 3. The Preeminence of Rome

    • That Paul wrote the longest & most profound of his epistles to Rome, & the tradition that he was martyred there, had given additional apostolic weight, along with the traditions of Peter’s ministry & death there.

    • The many missionaries sent out by R. caused new chs to feel affection & loyalty to the mother ch.

    • During the barbarian invasions, when the emperors failed to defend R., the popes saved the city through their intercession.


C bishops become popes17

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 3. The Preeminence of Rome

    • Pope Leo the Great is credited with stopping both Attila (452) & Gaiseric (455).

    • When Constantine moved to C., the R. bishop became the most imp person in R., & when the western empire fell in 476, the Roman popes became the most imp figures of western Europe, gradually taking over the power of the state.

    • During the later Mohammedan conquests, the cities of Antioch, Jerusalem & Alexandria fell to the Moslems, eliminating them forever as candidates for ch supremacy.


Early church to the reformation

Leo the Great (440-461)

When Atila the Hun was sacking northern Italy and closing in on Rome during the fifth century,

Pope Leo traveled to Mantua and, as this Raphael mural tells it, personally fought Atila in sword-

to-sword combat. Pope Leo also expanded the authority of the papacy by declaring command

over bishops and secular matters.


C bishops become popes18

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 3. The Preeminence of Rome

    • Whether it can be supported by scriptural injunction (it can’t) or accepted by universal allegiance, the ascendancy of Rome to papal primacy has been an obvious & permanent fact of history.


C bishops become popes19

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • Without question, the ch at R. has always maintained a list of her bishops which surpasses the list of any other ch in age, completeness, integrity of succession & consistency of doctrine & policy.

    • While the Protestant world recognizes the historical worth of such a list, it does not accept the RC tradition of calling each of these bishops a pope.


C bishops become popes20

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • Most Protestants have difficulty in accepting at face value the claim of Peter’s episcopate in Rome, which has no verifiable evidence in Scripture or history.

    • The successor, according to the claim, is Clement (according to Tertullian) or Linus (according to Irenaeus, Eusebius).

    • Then follows Anacletus, Alexander, Sixtus I, etc.

    • Several “popes” in 1st 5 c. exercised authority & wielded influence in secular history.


C bishops become popes21

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • a. Victor I.

    • A step toward papal supremacy occurred when Victor, bishop at Rome 189-198, assembled a council at Rome to excommunicate chs which did not subscribe to the Roman ch’s dating of Easter.

    • He later excommunicated Theodotus for denying the divinity of Christ.


Early church to the reformation

Victor

(189-199)


C bishops become popes22

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • b. Stephen I (254-257).

    • Intervened in theological disputes in South Gaul & Spain, & became involved in a long & bitter controversy with Cyprian over the validity of baptism by heretics.

    • During the controversy he invoked Matt. 16:18, implying his supremacy as Peter’s successor.


Early church to the reformation

Stephen

(254-257)


C bishops become popes23

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • c. Sylvester (314-335).

    • Baptized Emperor Constantine & established the Lateran ch as the cathedral of Rome on territory give him by the emperor.

    • It was claimed that he received the Donation of Constantine, which provided him with wide temporal rights over the ch.

    • The Donation of Constantine was exposed as a forgery in the 15th c.


Early church to the reformation

Sylvester I

(314-335)


C bishops become popes24

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • d. Damasus (366-384).

    • Was the 1st to seriously & staunchly employ the Petrine passage of Matt. 16:18 as biblical basis for primacy.

    • He also commissioned Jerome to prepare the Vulgate version of the Bible, promulgated a canon of scriptural books, & indicated that the Council of Nicaea was valid only because it had been approved by his predecessor, Sylvester.


Early church to the reformation

Damasus

(366-384)


C bishops become popes25

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • e. Innocent I (402-417).

    • Made more substantial claims for the papacy than any of his predecessors at Rome.

    • He insisted that major cases of dispute should be brought to the judgment of the Roman see.

    • Innocent claimed that the R. ch had sole custody of apostolic tradition & primacy over all bishops because of Peter’s primacy among the apostles.


C bishops become popes26

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • e. Innocent I (402-417).

    • He also exhibited determination & ability to exercise authority in the East as well as the West.

    • He was a powerful influence with the civil powers, & it was through his influence that Emperor Honorius issued his decree against the Donatists in 404.


C bishops become popes27

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • f. Leo I (440-461).

    • Leo would receive wide support among historians as “the first pope.”

    • He claimed that his see was of divine & scriptural authority.

    • He pressed his claims to jurisdiction over all the western provinces.

    • Without reservation or hesitation, Leo proclaimed that anyone who does not acknowledge the R. bishop as the head of the ch is not of the body of the ch.


Early church to the reformation

Leo the Great

(440-461)


C bishops become popes28

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • f. Leo I (440-461).

    • His legates presided over the Council of Chalcedon (451) where his personal Tome to Chalcedon was accepted as the standard for Christology. (Orthodox Christians dispute this decision).

    • In the political arena, he increased papal prestige by persuading the Huns to withdraw beyond the Danube (452) & secured concessions when the Vandals took Rome (455).


C bishops become popes29

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • f. Leo I (440-461).

    • History has named him “Leo the Great”.

    • For his unparalleled contributions to the strength & permanence of the papacy, he has deserved the name.


C bishops become popes30

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • g. Gelasius (492-96).

    • Must be mentioned in the list of early popes for his effectiveness in establishing claims that priestly power is above kingly power & that there can be no legitimate appeal from the chair of Peter.

    • In civil affairs, he declared, clergy are to submit to the emperor, but in ecclesiastical affairs, the emperor is to submit to the pope.


Early church to the reformation

Gelasius

(492-496)


C bishops become popes31

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • g. Gelasius (492-96).

    • He personally & tenaciously upheld the primacy of the Roman see against Constantinople during the Acacian Schism.

    • The conquests of Justin & Justinian reversed things & rendered the papacy subservient to the eastern emperor for a short time.

    • However, Leo & Gelasius had already laid the unshakable foundations for the expansion of the papacy in the Middle Ages.


C bishops become popes32

C. Bishops Become Popes

  • 4. The Earliest Popes

    • g. Gelasius (492-96).

    • The popes had a firm grasp on the keys which they claimed had been given them by Christ himself.


D monks become missionaries

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • While the politically minded bishops were debating supremacy & consolidating power, another segment of Xtianity was proceeding down an entirely different path.

  • The humble & selfless monks were keeping their vows of poverty, chastity & obedience & going about their daily activities of prayer & work.

  • Their quiet influence thoroughly penetrated the ch, & some of them left the monasteries for evangelistic preaching and foreign missions.


D monks become missionaries1

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • Constantine confronted the challenge of monasticism, believing that the retreat from society reflected on the society he was building.

    • Thanks to Basil, the movement was brought into line with normative Xtianity & ch organization.

    • Jerome united the movement with scholarship & service.

    • M. became a massive movement that attracted 1000s in the 4th & 5th c.


D monks become missionaries2

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • It was essentially a lay counterculture of withdrawal that developed into a powerful social force within a century.

    • a. Ulphilas (311-383) was known as the Apostle of the Goths because of his ministry among his people.

    • He had been consecrated bishop at Constantinople, but retreated to his native Cappadocia where he spent isolated years translating the Bible into the Gothic language.


D monks become missionaries3

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • a. Ulphilas (311-383)

    • He spent much of his of his life as a dedicated missionary beyond the confines of the empire.

    • Although never identified with monasticism as such, his personal spiritual habits certainly anticipated the rudiments of monasticism to come.

    • Because he was an Arian, U’s influence on the Goths caused them to embrace Arianism for several centuries.


D monks become missionaries4

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • b. Martin of Tours (335-397)

    • Was the son of a pagan & served in the Roman army.

    • After becoming a Xtian founded the monastery of Liguge, the first in Gaul (France).

    • Becoming bishop of Tours in 372, he encouraged the spread of monasticism in Gaul.

    • He himself set out to evangelize the hitherto neglected countryside, & introduced a rudimentary parochial system.


Early church to the reformation

Martin of Tours

(Dividing his cloak

in half with a beggar)

(by El Greco)


D monks become missionaries5

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • c. Patrick (389-461)

    • The “Apostle of the Irish” was born in Roman Britain, the son of a deacon & magistrate.

    • At age 16 he was kidnapped on his father’s farm by raiders & sold as a slave in Ireland.

    • After 6 yrs of service as a shepherd, he escaped & eventually reached home again.

    • During his captivity his faith had deepened, & he felt compelled to return to evangelize Ireland.


Early church to the reformation

St. Patrick

(Currier & Ives)


Early church to the reformation

St. Patrick casting out the serpents

S


D monks become missionaries6

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • c. Patrick (389-461)

    • He studied in the monastery of Lerins & was ordained a deacon in 417.

    • He was sent to Palladius in Ireland & upon the bishop’s death he was made bishop in 432

    • At the court of High King Laoghaire he gained toleration for Xtianity & converted several members of the royal family.

    • He preached extensively & established numerous chs.


D monks become missionaries7

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • c. Patrick (389-461)

    • He founded the Cathedral Church of Armagh, which became the educational & administrative center of the Irish ch.

    • He emphasized the ascetic life & monasticism throughout his ministry, but continued his evangelistic efforts.

    • He taught the priority of mission to Celtic Xtianity, which produced great numbers of monks who evangelized western Europe during the 6th & 7th c.


D monks become missionaries8

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • c. Patrick (389-461)

    • P. organized the scattered Xtian communities in Northern Ireland & brought the country into much closer relations with the rest of the western ch.

    • He encouraged the study of Latin, & tried to raise the general standards of scholarship.

    • P. is a classic e.g. of spiritual monasticism going forth to the world in love and dedication.


D monks become missionaries9

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • d. Columba (521-597)

    • C. is credited with turning the religious, political & social life of Scotland to Xtianity.

    • He came from a noble Irish family, was trained in Irish monasteries, & founded several chs & monasteries in his country.

    • Compelled by missionary zeal, he left his home in 563 & settled with 12 companions on the island of Iona on the west coast of Scotland.


Early church to the reformation

Columba Landing on Iona


D monks become missionaries10

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • d. Columba (521-597)

    • There he established a monastery which served as a base for evangelism among the Scots & Picts.

    • He preached forcefully to people who were under the influence of the Druids, dread opponents of Xtianity.

    • Brude, king of the Picts, was converted under his preaching, many chs were founded, & practically all of Scotland was Xtianized.


D monks become missionaries11

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • d. Columba (521-597)

    • He was a man of deep visionary piety, who practiced effective involvement in the affairs of kings & chiefs and had concern for Xtian scholarship.


D monks become missionaries12

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • e. Benedict of Nursia (480-542)

    • B. is known as the “Patriarch of western monasticism.”

    • He was educated in Rome, where the immorality of society led him to withdraw from the world & retire to a cave at Subiaco.

    • A community grew up around him & he established 12 monasteries with 12 monks each, with abbots appointed by himself.

    • In 525 he established the famous monastery at Monte Cassino, south of Rome.


Early church to the reformation

Benedict of Nursia

(480-542)


Early church to the reformation

Monte Cassino


Early church to the reformation

Bombardment of Monte Cassino


Early church to the reformation

Battle of Monte Cassino 1943


D monks become missionaries13

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • e. Benedict of Nursia (480-542)

    • Here he elaborated his plans for the reform of monasticism & composed his celebrated Rule of St. Benedict, which became the universal monastic rule in the Middle Ages.

    • B. did not stress poverty, nor discourage possessions, which enabled his monks to do works of mercy.

    • The sick & guests received special treatment in Benedictine monasteries.


D monks become missionaries14

D. Monks Become Missionaries

  • 1. Monasticism

    • e. Benedict of Nursia (480-542)

    • B. monasteries became centers of hospitality, learning, worship, & liturgical art.

    • The ch found the B. monasteries especially effective in transmitting culture to the barbarians during the Dark Ages.


E beliefs become creeds

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • The joy of Xtianity’s victory over the Roman Empire had been shattered by an internal Xtological dispute which Constantine was determined to settle once & for all.

  • This issue was not settled, finally, however, until a century & a quarter later.

  • 4 ecumenical councils were called during this time as the controversy raged back & forth & threatened to split Xtianity irreparably.


E beliefs become creeds1

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • The councils, their dates & the chief subjects dealt with were:

    • 1) Nicaea, 325 Arianism

    • 2) Constantinople, 381, Apollinarianism

    • 3) Ephesus, 431, Nestorianism

    • 4) Chalcedon, 451, Eutychianism

  • Although each of the councils dealt with many matters pertinent to the life of the ch, the main issue was that of the doctrine of the person of X.


E beliefs become creeds2

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • From the beginning the centrality of Xtianity resided not in functions, liturgies, & mystical experiences, but in rationally held doctrines or beliefs, which were expressed in worship & witness.

  • The beliefs about Jesus X were absolutely fundamental to the very existence of the church.

  • The prolonged controversies of the 4th & 5th c. were about the person of X.


E beliefs become creeds3

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • The controversies were about:

    • How Christ, the Son of God, was actually himself God (the doctrine of the Trinity), and how he was both man and God (the doctrine of Christology).


E beliefs become creeds4

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 1. Nicaea

    • Constantine personally convened & opened the 1st council at Nicaea in Bithynia in 325.

    • His main interest was to secure unity rather than any predetermined theological verdict.

    • The controversy had begun in 319 when Arius, a priest in of the chs in Alexandria, had clashed with his bishop, Alexander.

    • Arius had been teaching that the Father alone was really God & that the Son was essentially different from the Father.


E beliefs become creeds5

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 1. Nicaea

    • He believed that the dignity of Jesus as the Son of God was bestowed upon him by the Father on account of his foreseen righteousness.

    • Arianism maintained that the Son was not eternal but created by the Father as an instrument for creating the world.

    • For his subordinationist teachings, Arius was excommunicated by Alexander, but not before he had gained a strong following, including Eusebius of Nicomedia (causing sympathizers to be known as Eusebians).


E beliefs become creeds6

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 1. Nicaea

    • When C. could not settle the issue through a personal envoy to Alexandria, he convened the council in 325 to settle the matter.

    • Arius was rather quickly condemned by his own words, & Athanasius, assistant to Alexander, emerged as the champion of orthodoxy.

    • Eusebius of Caesarea (the historian) was present & laid before the council the baptismal creed of his own church.


E beliefs become creeds7

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 1. Nicaea

    • This creed became known as the Nicene Creed, & with 4 anti-Arian anathemas attached, was subscribed to by all the bishops present, except for 2 who were deposed and banished.


E beliefs become creeds8

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • Nicaea was followed by more than ½ c. of discord & disorder in the eastern ch, which also affected the stability of the West.

    • Arianism both ascended & descended, Athanasius was alternately praised & banned.

    • Councils called at Antioch (341) & Sardica (342) did more harm than good toward reconciliation.

    • The N. Creed remained officially in force until Constantine’s death.


E beliefs become creeds9

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • But when his son Constantius died, Arianism was practically dominant in the East.

    • Constantius forced the western bishops to condemn & banish Athanasius, & encouraged the writing of anti-Nicene creeds.

    • The situation caused Jerome to write, “The whole world groaned in astonishment at finding itself Arian.”

    • A decisive step toward repairing the damage was taken by Basil the Great.


E beliefs become creeds10

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • B. had so strongly influenced eastern monasticism & other Cappadocians (Gregory of Nyssa & Gregory of Nazianzus).

    • Their complex doctrine of the Trinity served to demonstrate that it was possible to accept both Nicaea (homoousios) & the distinct persons (hypostaseis) of Father, Son, & Spirit at the same time.

    • By giving precise meanings to the terms used in talking about the Trinity, Basil paved the way for the work of the Council of Constantinople in 381.


E beliefs become creeds11

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • Theodosius, a westerner & strong supporter of Nicaea, became eastern emperor in 379 & summoned the C. of Con. To reaffirm the faith of Nicaea.

    • The creed of N. was upheld & then became known as the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.

    • This council marked the end of Arianism within the empire.

    • There was, however, another controversy raging.


E beliefs become creeds12

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • It raged over the Christological question precipitated by Apollinarius, bishop of Laodicea in Syria.

    • Thus, Apollinarianism became the central issue at Constantinople rather than Arianism.

    • Beg. with the N. doctine, A. had carried the unity of the Father & Son to such extremes as to deny the complete manhood of X, & thus to make Apollinarianism the 1st great Christological heresy.


E beliefs become creeds13

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • In emphasizing the deity of X, Apollinarius rejected the idea of moral development in X’s life, & asserted that while X had a human body & soul, the human spirit, or rational soul, had been replaced with the divine Logos.

    • God in X was transmuted into flesh, & this flesh was then transmuted into something by divine nature.

    • X did not receive his human nature from Mary.


E beliefs become creeds14

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • He brought with him from heaven a heavenly kind of flesh.

    • The womb of Mary simply served as a passageway.

    • The fundamental objection to Appollinarius’ teaching was that if there is no complete manhood in X, he is not a perfect e.g. for us, nor does he redeem the whole of human nature but only its spiritual elements.

    • The C. of Con. explicity & conclusively Apollinarianism.


E beliefs become creeds15

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • It struck down the possibility that docetism would gain a foothold in Xtian theology.

    • Because of its imp. place in determining the future of orthodoxy in Xtian teaching, it is useful to see the Nicene-Constantinople in its entirety:

    • We believe in one God the Father all-sovereign, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible: And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God.


E beliefs become creeds16

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • Begotten of the Father before all ages, Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten not made, of one substance with the Father, through whom all things were made, who for us men and our salvation came down from the heavens, and was made flesh of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and became man, and was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and was buried, and rose again on the third day according to the Scriptures, and ascended into the heavens, and sits on the right hand of the Father, and comes


E beliefs become creeds17

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 2. Constantinople

    • Again with glory to judge the living and dead, of whose kingdom there shall be no end: And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and the Life-giver, that proceeds from the Father, who with the Son is worshiped together and glorified together, who spoke through the prophets: In one holy catholic and apostolic church: We acknowledge one baptism unto remission of sins. We look for a resurrection of the dead and the life of the age to come.


E beliefs become creeds18

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 3. Ephesus

    • Following the C. of Con., Xtological disputes continued to disrupt the East.

    • The question of how one was to conceive of the human-divine in the historical X had obviously not been settled to everyone’s satisfaction.

    • Adding to the controversy was a growing devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus.

    • If Jesus were truly God, did not this imply that Mary was also the mother of God?


E beliefs become creeds19

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 3. Ephesus

    • Nestorius, bishop of Con., rejected & attacked this notion which was expressed in the term “Theotokos” (God bearer), & proposed instead the term “Christotokos.”

    • Strongly opposing both Apollinariansim & the growing popularity of “Theotokos,” N. worked out a Xtology which came to be interpreted as saying that X was constituted of 2 natures.

    • He did not deny the deity of X, but he spoke of a “conjunction” rather than a union of the two natures.


E beliefs become creeds20

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 3. Ephesus

    • He never divided X into 2 sons, the Son of God & the Son of Mary (as he was accused of doing), but he refused to attribute to the divine nature the human acts & sufferings of the man Jesus.

    • He insisted that to call Mary the mother of God was to declare that the divine nature could be born of a woman, or that God could be two days old.

    • Apparently N. believed in 2 different natures & two different persons in Christ.


E beliefs become creeds21

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 3. Ephesus

    • This was directly opposed to the orthodox doctrine that the incarnate X was a single person.

    • Cyril of Alexandria & Egyptian monks began severe attacks on Nestorius in 428.

    • Both sides appealed to Rome, where Pope Celestine decided against Nestorius.

    • In 431, Emperor Theodosius II called the Council of Ephesus to dispose of the matter, which it did by disposing of Nestorius.


E beliefs become creeds22

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 3. Ephesus

    • Defeated, N. was deposed from his see of Constantinople & excommunicated, his doctrines condemned, and the Creed of Nicaea reaffirmed.

    • In its rejection of Nestorianism, the council also gave formal approval to the concept of “Theotokos.”

    • After the C. of Ephesus, the eastern bishops who refused to accept the decision of the council, constituted themselves into a separate Nestorian church.


E beliefs become creeds23

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 3. Ephesus

    • It had its center in Persia, & survived centuries of hostility, Moslem conquests, & pagan influences.

    • A remnant still remains today, sometimes called Assyrian Christians.


E beliefs become creeds24

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 4. Chalcedon

    • In the early 440s a new generation took over.

    • There was, however, an aged monastic superior in Con., named Eutyches, who continued to attack the doctrine of “two natures after the union.”

    • In the terms of a “single-nature” doctrine he suggested that X’s humanity was absorbed by his divinity like a drop of wine in the sea.

    • In his zealous opposition to the Nestorian heresy, he developed his own heresy of maintaining that that there were “two natures before, but only one after, the union.”


Early church to the reformation

Eutyches


E beliefs become creeds25

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 4. Chalcedon

    • Eutyches was condemned by his patriarch Flavian (Con.), but strangely supported by Dioscorus (Alexandria).

    • Countercharges, intrigues, & disorder caused Theodosius II to summon another council at Ephesus in 449.

    • Leo, opposing Eutyches, sent a statement of doctrine (Tome) for the bishops to approve, but it was refused a hearing.


E beliefs become creeds26

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 4. Chalcedon

    • Dominated by Dioscorus, the council deposed Flavian, reinstated Eutyches, & banned the two-nature doctrine of Constantinople.

    • Leo labeled the council, or synod, a “robber band.”

    • After the death of Theodosius II, his sister Pulcheria reigned with her husband Marcian, & Leo persuaded them to call the great Council at Chalcedon in late 451.

    • Located across the Bosphorus from Con., Chalcedon became the site of the last major Christological council.


E beliefs become creeds27

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 4. Chalcedon

    • The actions of the “robber synod” were rescinded, Dioscorus was deposed, & Eutyches condemned.

    • The council put out a composite Definition which consisted of the Creeds of 325 & 381, two letters of Cyril refuting Nestorius, Leo’s Tome, & a new confession.

    • The Xtological formula of the Definition of Chalcedon became and remains to this day the orthodox statement about the person of Jesus Christ---


Early church to the reformation

Cyril

of

Alexandria


Early church to the reformation

Leo


E beliefs become creeds28

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 4. Chalcedon

    • “We all with one voice confess our Lord Jesus Christ one and the same Son, at once complete in Godhead, and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man, consisting of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance with the Father as regards his Godhead, of one substance with us as regards his manhood, like us in all things, apart from sin; begotten of the Father before the ages as regards his Godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born from


E beliefs become creeds29

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 4. Chalcedon

    • the Virgin Mary, the God-bearer (Theotokos), as regards his manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, or without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way abolished because of the union, but rather the characteristic property of each nature being preserved, and coming together to form one person (prosopon) and one entity (hypostasis), not as if Christ were parted or divided into two persons. . . .”


E beliefs become creeds30

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 4. Chalcedon

    • It had been almost 500 yrs since Jesus of Nazareth had walked on the earth; it seemed now that a consensus had been reached as to who he really was.

    • The ch rejected adoptionism, which emphasized the humanity of X to the neglect (or denial) of his divinity, & it had rejected the opposite heresy of docetism, which emphasized the divinity of X to the neglect of his humanity.


E beliefs become creeds31

E. Beliefs Become Creeds

  • 4. Chalcedon

    • According to Chalcedon, Jesus was to be held to be both “truly God and truly man.”


  • Login