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Selecting materials for task-based learning learning as a gradual, organic and cyclical process which involves the learner in actively constructing knowledge (Bruner, 1985; Vygotsky, 1978). Learning is also considered most effective when it is interactive, holistic and purposeful, and when the conceptual content is thematically interrelated, and when the process of learning is personally engaging to the learner. Nunan (1999) and Willis (1996) make similar observations about the essential conditions for effective language learning.
Framework for integrating LA into a emphasis has been placed on providing learning opportunities that enhance students’ progress in various dimensions, namely the Knowledge, Interpersonal, and Experience Dimensions, so that they can learn to effectively use and communicate information, ‘knowledge, ideas, values, attitudes and experience’ (CDC, 2004, p.4). To foster students’ development in the Experience Dimension, which is generally not adequately addressed in textbooks, language arts (LA) activities such as drama, and poetry writing have a major role to play in heightening students’ language sensitivity, cultural awareness, and creative thinking. text-book based curriculum
The following framework adapted from Estaire & Zanon, 1994) provides important guidelines for developing and selecting appropriate language arts materials for integration into a text-based unit of work:
Stage 1: Matching LA materials with the theme:
Stage 2: Planning the units and tasks
Stage 3: Determining the targets
Stage 4: Specifying content
Stage 5: Planning the process
Stage 6: Planning evaluation instruments and procedures