Slide1 l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 31

Organelles PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 79 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Organelles. Biology 11 E. McIntyre. Cytoplasm (cytosol): a cell's inner space. Plasma membrane. Cytoskeleton cytosol.

Download Presentation

Organelles

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Slide1 l.jpg

Organelles

Biology 11

E. McIntyre


Cytoplasm cytosol a cell s inner space l.jpg

Cytoplasm (cytosol): a cell's inner space

Plasma

membrane

Cytoskeleton

cytosol

Cytosol:large fluid-filled space (mostly water + proteins that control most of the cell metabolisms): glycolysis, transcription factors, intracellular receptors etc.


Slide3 l.jpg

Organelles

Reminder! Membrane-bound organelles are only found in eukaryotes.

  • Nucleus

  • Protein production machine: the ribosomes

  • Mitochondria and Chloroplasts

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi apparatus

  • Lysosomes and Peroxisomes

  • Adapted and/or specialized for carrying out one or more vital functions


Nucleus a cell s center l.jpg

Nucleus: a cell's center

Function of the nucleus:

  • Stores the chromosomes (genetic material) Note: Two kinds of genetic material:

    • deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

    • ribonucleic acid (RNA)

  • Keeps the DNA molecules of separated from metabolic machinery of cytoplasm.


Nucleus a cell s center5 l.jpg

...Nucleus: a cell's center

  • Makes it easier to organize DNA and to copy it before parent cells divide into daughter cells

  • DNA replication and synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA)


Nucleolus l.jpg

Nucleolus

  • Dense mass of material in nucleus

  • Cluster of DNA and proteins

  • Subunits must pass through nuclear pores to reach cytoplasm

  • production of ribosomes in nucleolus


Nuclear membrane envelope l.jpg

Nuclear Membrane (Envelope)

  • One continuous membrane which spans the ER’s membrane as well. (lipid bilayers)

  • Pores span bilayerand controls what enters/leaves nucleus.


Chromatin l.jpg

Chromatin

  • Cell’s collection of DNA and associated proteins

  • A chromosome is one DNA molecule and its associated proteins

  • Appearance changes as cell divides


Ribosomes l.jpg

Ribosomes

FUNCTION:

  • assembles proteins (non cytosolic & cytosolic proteins)

  • some are free in cytoplasm (cytoplasmic ribosomes), others are attached to the ER (ER ribosomes)


Endoplasmic reticulum er l.jpg

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

STRUCTURE

  • ER is a continuation of the outer nuclear membrane.

  • Two types: Smooth and Rough. (Rough ER has ribosomes on it)

  • Network of membrane that connects nuclear envelope to the cell membrane


Endoplasmic reticulum er11 l.jpg

…Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

FUNCTION:

  • Smooth ER (no ribrosomes): responsible for lipid and membrane protein modifications)

  • Rough ER (has ribosomes on it) responsible for the synthesis of other proteins). The ribosomes assemble the proteins within the rough ER. Once assembled, the proteins pinch off the ER and are released in a vesicle.


Endoplasmic reticulum er12 l.jpg

…Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)


Golgi body golgi apparatus l.jpg

Golgi Body (Golgi Apparatus)

FUNCTION:

  • processes, packages, and, secretes cell products (lipids & proteins)

  • Put finishing touches on proteins and lipids that arrive from ER

  • Package finished material for shipment to final destinations. (Exocytosis)

  • Material arrives

    and leaves in vesicles


Golgi body golgi apparatus14 l.jpg

…Golgi Body (Golgi Apparatus)


Slide15 l.jpg

Mitochondria

STRUCTURE

  • Double membrane. Inner membrane is folded for greater surface area. Folds are called cristae.

  • Interior is called the matrix.

  • Contain their own genome (distinct from nuclear genome)

  • Self-replicating

    FUNCTION

  • ‘burns’ food, i.e. glucose to release energy. Energy is used to make ATP. ATP is a high-energy molecule that can be directly used by the cell.


Slide16 l.jpg

…Mitochondria

The “powerhouse” of the cell


Slide17 l.jpg

Lysosomes

STRUCTURE

  • Formed by Golgi bodies

  • Bound by a single membrane

    FUNCTIONS

  • Digests the food particles inside the cell with help of enzymes. These enzymes work at low pH.

  • Involved in autolysis (suicide of cell)

  • Digest foreign bacteria that invade a cell

  • Recycling of membrane components

  • Repair damage to plasma membrane


Slide18 l.jpg

Peroxisomes

  • Made by Golgi

  • Surrounded by a single bilipid membrane

  • Detoxification of poisonous substances

  • Many in the liver/ brain

lysosome


Slide19 l.jpg

Cell Wall

FUNCTION:

  • maintains the shape of a plant cell

  • found in plants, some fungi, some protists

  • In plants, cell walls are made of a polysaccharide called cellulose.

  • Structural component that wraps around the plasma membrane


Cell wall l.jpg

…Cell Wall


Slide21 l.jpg

Chloroplasts

FUNCTION:

  • Photosynthesis: converts sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into sugar (makes food for plants)


Slide22 l.jpg

Vacuole

  • A large membrane bound sac

    FUNCTION:

  • storage area for proteins and

    water

  • Maintain structure in plant cells by means of turgor pressure


Slide23 l.jpg

Cytoskeleton: a cell's scaffold

  • very complex and dynamic cell component!

  • organizes and maintains the cell's shape (e.g. epithelial cells of the gut)

  • Allows organelles to remain in place or to move throughout cell

  • helps during the uptake of external material (endocytosis)

  • involvement in cell movement

  • growth


Cytoskeleton l.jpg

...Cytoskeleton

intermediate filaments

microtubules

microfilaments

tubulin

actin

keratin family

All help maintain cell shape

Nuclear lamina

Anchorage of nucleus and some other organelles

Cilia, flagella

Chromosome movement

Organelle movement

Cytoplasmic streaming

Pseudopodia

Cell division


Slide25 l.jpg

...Cytoskeleton


Cytoskeleton26 l.jpg

...Cytoskeleton


Molecular motors l.jpg

...Cytoskeleton

Molecular motors


Slide28 l.jpg

...Cytoskeleton

Macrophage attacks bacteria

Microfilaments (actin) allow formation of pseudopods


Cytoskeleton29 l.jpg

...Cytoskeleton

Striated Muscle


Cytoskeleton30 l.jpg

...Cytoskeleton

Centrosome:Made up of centriole pairs


Bibliography l.jpg

Bibliography

  • http://users.ipfw.edu/mustafaa/PQ_B100-02-ppt-Chapter4-Cell%20Structures%20and%20Functions.ppt

  • http://images.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://biology.dbs.umt.edu/biol101/labs/lab_6_images/sect05and02/cheek%2520cell%25201000x.jpg&imgrefurl=http://biology.dbs.umt.edu/biol101/labs/lab_6_images/sect05and02/section_2and5_cellimages.htm&h=768&w=1024&sz=316&tbnid=OxmCr18W6AQJ:&tbnh=112&tbnw=149&start=1&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcheek%2Bcell%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D

  • www.ops.org/burke/02science/organelles.ppt

  • file:///C:/WINDOWS/Temporary%20Internet%20Files/Content.IE5/UPK3G94Z/266,12,Diffusion

  • http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol22000/11Organelles/images/F05-43A.JPG

  • http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/nucleus.html

  • http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/er.htm

  • cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/ribosome.htm

  • http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/golgi.htm


  • Login