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Metrology Roadmap 2009. Europe Bart Rijpers (ASML) Japan Yuichiro Yamazaki (Toshiba) Eiichi Kawamura (Fujitsu Microelectronics) Masahiko Ikeno (Hitachi High-Tech) Korea Taiwan North America Meridith Bebe (Technos) Ben Bunday (ISMI)

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Metrology roadmap 2009

Metrology Roadmap2009

Europe Bart Rijpers (ASML)

Japan Yuichiro Yamazaki (Toshiba)

Eiichi Kawamura (Fujitsu Microelectronics)

Masahiko Ikeno (Hitachi High-Tech)

Korea

Taiwan

North America Meridith Bebe (Technos)

Ben Bunday (ISMI)

Alain Diebold (CNSE – Univ. Albany)

Brendan Foran (Aerospace)

Dick Hockett (EAG Labs)

Jack Martinez (NIST)

George Orji (NIST)

Dave Seiler (NIST)



Lithography metrology for advanced patterning
Lithography Metrology for Advanced Patterning

Spacer

Patterning

Double

Exposure

Double

Patterning

2p

CD p/2

Spacers

Metrology Need:

Latent Image CD

CD-AFM after both exposures but no Solution for CD between exposures

Metrology Need:

Overlay with

Precision of 70%

Of Single Layer

Metrology Need:

Spacer Thickness on Sidewall

Spacer Profile

22 nm Dense lines


Metrology challenges for advanced litho processes
Metrology Challenges for Advanced Litho Processes

2 Population CD, SWA, height and pitch

Potential Solution -> scatterometry

Q: is there enough sensitivity for odd-even line scenario

Metrology for Latent Image at 1st exposure

might be avoided using

AEC/APC approaches & CD/Overlay

after double exposure


Contour metrology
Contour Metrology

  • For CD-SEMs, Design-Based Metrology (DBM) applications allow for practical SEM verification of design intent, through the collection of feature 2D contour shape information and comparison to GDS files.

    • automatic CD-SEM recipe setup from design information

  • DBM applications very important for development and verification of OPC

    • number of measurements for successfully developing OPC is expected to grow exponentially with technology generation.

    • metrology interfaces with the Design for Manufacturing (DFM) community.

  • Contour fidelity is a prevailing challenge

    • Accuracy of contour extraction  strong implications for OPC

    • Accuracy of registration  strong implications for in-die overlay

  • Remaining work : define:

    • contour error source testing methodologies

    • contour reference metrology

    • SEM modeling for contours


Fep metrology

Poly-Si Gate Electrode

Thermal SiO2

Nitride Spacer

Nickel Silicide

N + Doped Silicon Source Drain

P well

FEP Metrology

  • New High K – Metal Gate Materials

  • III-V and SiGe Channels

  • New Memory Materials (e.g. Phase Change Memory -- polycrystalline chalcogenide)


Fep metrology1
FEP Metrology

  • 3D Metrology – Complex structure measurement and

  • inspection are required

  • e.g. high A/R holes, film thickness & properties on sidewall

Pipe-shaped BiCS Flash Memory

(R. Katsumata, Toshiba)

TCAT (Terabit Cell Array Transistor)

(J. Jang, Samsung)


Local strain stress measurement

Measurement Point

Local Strain/Stress Measurement

Relatively small laser spot

(Visible light)

with deeper penetration

pMOS

nMOS

Ghani, et al (Intel)

Stress Liner

Wide laser spot

for extracting average stress

STI

STI

Channel

Strain/Stress

Small laser spot

for extracting single Tr. stress

Cross sectioning

for TEM


Local stress strain measurement method
Local Stress/Strain Measurement Method

Sensitivity

Measurement

Method

Measurement

Area

Sample

Thickness

Area of Interest

Stress

Strain

Transistor Level

- CBED

- NBD

- TERS

20 MPa

100 MPa

50 MPa

0.02%

0.1%

0.05%

10-20nm

~10nm

<50nm

<100nm

<300nm

Destructive

Destructive

Destructive

Non-Destructive

Micro-Area Level

20MPa

10 MPa

<20MPa

0.02%

0.01%

<0.02%

~150nm

100um

1um

- Confocal Raman

- XRD

- Photo reflectance

Spectroscopy

Non-Destructive

Handling Area of ITRS

Die

- Die level flatness

- Laser Interferometry

- Coherent Gradient Sensing

Non-Destructive

Wafer

- Laser

Interferometry

- Coherent

Gradient Sensing

Non-Destructive

TERS (Tip Enhanced Raman Scattering)

CBED (Convergent Beam Electron Diffraction)

NBD (Nano Beam Electron Diffraction)

XRD (X-ray Diffraction)

* Stress – Strain relation : need to be clarified



2009 interconnect metrology
2009 Interconnect Metrology

  • Existing Challenges

    • Measurement Gap - Sidewall barrier thickness

      and sidewall damage (compositional changes

      in low k)

    • New - Porous low k is projected for 32 nm ½ Pitch

    • Detection of Voids after electroplating

    • Monolayer interface for new barrier-low k

  • Air Gap sacrificial layer does not require unique metrology

  • Metrology is needed for 3D Integration

    • TSV Depth and Profile through multiple layers

    • Alignment of chips for stacking – wafer level integration

    • Bond strength

    • Defects in bonding

    • Damage to metal layers

    • Defects in vias between wafers

    • Through Si via is high aspect ratio CD issue

    • Wafer thickness and TTV after thinning

    • Defects after thinning including wafer edge


Questions for interconnect
Questions for Interconnect

  • Describe the new copper contact process and metrology issues

  • In addition to TSV, what issues face 3d Interconnect for metrology


Metrology for erm erd
Metrology for ERM/ERD

High carrier mobility and structural robustness have driven a considerable effort in Graphene research

Measurement of Bi-layer

misorientation

Aberration corrected TEM

How many Layers? Raman and LEEM

Quantum Hall Effect observes the Berry Phase


Metrology summary
Metrology Summary

3D Metrology for Advanced Memory

  • FEP-Interconnect-Litho

    • PC and SST RAM - New materials for Metrology

    • Dual Patterning

    • 3D Metrology – Confirm Geometry Requirements

      e.g. film thickness & properties on sidewall

    • Reference Methods for 3D

    • Composition & Stress – e.g. buried channels

    • EUV metrology requirements

  • ERD-ERM

    • Properties of low Dimensional Materials

    • Microscopy and feature size/function

    • Time resolved magnetic measurements

    • Ability to perform real time measurements,

      e.g. phase transitions

Graphene – C. Kisielowski


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