Energy resource from landfills for st christopher nevis
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Energy Resource from Landfills for St. Christopher & Nevis. Deborah in front of Conaree Sanitary Landfill. Presented by Deborah L. Cool, MS MD and PhD Candidate 8165-1 Environmental Health, Walden University Dr. Howard Rubin Summer 2010. Conaree Sanitary Facility.

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Energy Resource from Landfills for St. Christopher & Nevis

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Energy resource from landfills for st christopher nevis

Energy Resource from Landfills for St. Christopher & Nevis

Deborah in front of Conaree Sanitary Landfill

Presented by Deborah L. Cool, MS

MD and PhD Candidate

8165-1 Environmental Health, Walden University

Dr. Howard Rubin

Summer 2010


Conaree sanitary facility

Conaree Sanitary Facility


St kitts and nevis paradise under threat

St. Kitts and Nevis – Paradise under Threat?


Learning outcomes

Learning Outcomes

  • Prolonged exposure to methane leads to disease

  • Danger: Gas explosion possible

  • How landfill methane is produced

  • Generates electricity for 2,000-3,000 homes per landfill

  • Make ca$h from tra$h

  • International assistance available


Long term health risks from methane gas exposure

Long-term Health Risks from Methane Gas Exposure

  • Bladder cancer

  • Leukemia

  • COPD

Bednar, J. (2003).Trash Power: Westfield (MA) Will Convert Landfill Methane to Energy. BusinessWest. October 1 2003. http://www.allbusiness.com/specialty-businesses/916582-1.html


About methane

About Methane

  • Chemical structure of methane (CH4)

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas


How methane gets produced from a landfill

How Methane gets Produced from a Landfill

  • Anaerobic decomposition of trash piled like a layer cake of trash and dirt

  • The dirt helps control the smell and keeps animals at bay

  • Rainfall helps encourage natural decomposition

  • Methane rises, either escaping into the atmosphere OR trapped within


Collecting methane

Collecting Methane

Reference: Hafez, H. et al. (2010). An integrated system for hydrogen and methane production during landfill leachate treatment. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy; May2010, Vol. 35 Issue 10, p5010-5014, 5p.


Methane contributes to greenhouse gases

Methane contributes to Greenhouse Gases

  • Non-CO2 greenhouse gases:

    Methane contributes14.3% globally

Reference: IPCC 4th Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007:  Synthesis Report


Converting methane to electricity

Converting Methane to Electricity

  • Chemical Energy Mechanical Energy  Electrical Energy


Filtration process of collected methane

Filtration Process of Collected Methane

  • Collect methane from 15-20 wells

  • Clean before use


Biogenerators

Biogenerators

  • Electricity Generation

  • Direct Use

  • Cogeneration

  • Alternate Fuels

Reference: Learn about Landfills and Methane Gas. http://www.recyclingsuperguide.com/learn-about-landfills-and-methane-gas-2


Benefits of landfill gas energy

Benefits of Landfill Gas Energy

  • Converts methane, a potent heat-trapping gas

  • Generates renewable energy and offsets the use of non-renewable resources such as coal, natural gas, and oil

  • Cost–effective options for reducing methane emissions while generating energy

  • Reduces local air pollution

  • Creates jobs, revenues, and cost savings

Reference: http://www.epa.gov/lmop/documents/pdfs/lfg_modeling.pdf


Making ca h from tra h

Making Ca$h from Tra$h

  • A Vancouver, Canada landfill generates a revenue stream of $400,000 US per year for the next 20 years

Learn about Landfills and Methane Gas. http://www.recyclingsuperguide.com/learn-about landfills-and-methane-gas-2


Energy resource from landfills for st christopher nevis

  • International Activities:

  • LMOP promoting Landfill Gas Recovery and Use

  • Outreach

  • Education

  • Technical Assistance

  • Economic Feasibility


Energy resource from landfills for st christopher nevis

  • About the partnership

  • Purpose:

  • Stimulates local economic growth

  • Creates new sources of affordable alternative energy

  • Improves local air and water quality

  • Increases industrial worker safety


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Prolonged exposure to methane leads to disease

  • Potential hazardous gas explosion without proper collection

  • How landfill methane is produced

  • Generate electricity for 4,000-6,000 homes (2,000-3,000 homes per island)

  • Make ca$h from tra$h

  • Contact LMOP and Methane to Markets


Sources for further reading

Sources for further reading

  • Donovan, S. et al. (2010). Modelling the Behaviour of Mechanical Biological Treatment Outputs in Landfills using the GasSim model. Science of the Total Environment; Mar2010, Vol. 408 Issue 8, p1979-1984, 6p.

  • EPA. (2003). International Analysis of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Abatement Opportunities: Report to Energy Modeling Forum, Working Group 21. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. June, 2003. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/pdfs/methodologych4.pdf 

  • EPA. (2006). Global Anthropogenic Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990-2020, revised. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/downloads/GlobalAnthroEmissionsReport.pdf

  • Tolaymat, T. et al. (2010). Evaluation of landfill gas decay constant for municipal solid waste landfills operated as bioreactors. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. Jan 2010. Vol. 60(1), pp. 91-7. 


References

References

  • Agriculture, (2010). Personal Interview by staff in Ministry of Agriculture, Basseterre, St. Kitts, on July 17, 2010.

  • Bednar, J. (2003).Trash Power: Westfield (MA) Will Convert Landfill Methane to Energy. BusinessWest. October 1 2003. http://www.allbusiness.com/specialty-businesses/916582-1.html

  • Energy from Urban Waste. (2009). http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/re_biomass-urban.htm

  • http://www.epa.gov/lmop/documents/pdfs/lfg_modeling.pdf

  • Ewail, M. (2007). Primer on Landfill Gas as "Green" Energy. http://www.energyjustice.net/lfg/

  • Hafez, H. et al. (2010). An integrated system for hydrogen and methane production during landfill leachate treatment. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy; May2010, Vol. 35 Issue 10, p5010-5014, 5p.

  • How to Produce Electricity from a Biogas Digester. http://www.anaerobic-digestion.com/html/electricity_from_methane_diges.php

  • Figueroa, V. et al. (2009). A Robust Method for Estimating Landfill Methane Emissions. Journal Of The Air & Waste Management Association (1995) [J Air Waste Management Assoc] 2009 Aug; Vol. 59 (8), pp. 925-35.

  • Learn about Landfills and Methane Gas. http://www.recyclingsuperguide.com/learn-about-landfills-and-methane-gas-2

  • Ryu, C. (2010). Potential of municipal solid waste for renewable energy production and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in South Korea. Journal of The Air & Waste Management Association. Feb 2010. Vol. 60 (2), pp. 176-83.

  • Sri Shalini, S. et al. (2010). Biological stability of municipal solid waste from simulated landfills under tropical environment. Bioresource Technology; Feb2010, Vol. 101 Issue 3, p845-852, 8p

  • http://www.uspowerpartners.org/Topics/SECTION6Topic-LandfillMethane.htm

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_gas


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