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California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program An Overview . Transportation Work Group Phase III - Meeting 1 October 30, 2003 . Coralie Cooper NESCAUM 101 Merrimac Street Boston, MA 02143. 617-367-8540 www.nescaum.org. Background (a).

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California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program An Overview

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California low emission vehicle lev program an overview l.jpg

CaliforniaLow Emission Vehicle (LEV)ProgramAn Overview

Transportation Work Group

Phase III - Meeting 1

October 30, 2003

Coralie Cooper

NESCAUM

101 Merrimac Street

Boston, MA 02143

617-367-8540

www.nescaum.org


Background a l.jpg

Background (a)

  • §209(a) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) prohibits states from setting standards for new vehicles or vehicle engines.

  • §209(b) exempts any state that adopted standards before 3/30/66 -- only California meets this pioneering criterion.

  • Under the exemption, California has developed and administered state-specific standards for as long as vehicle emissions have been regulated.

Page 2


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Background (b)

  • Section 177(a) of the CAA provides authority to states to adopt California motor vehicle emission standards.

    • Implemented standards must be identical to California.

    • Two full model year (MY) lead time must be provided.

    • Case law in recent years has clarified adoption process.

    • States can adopt after CARB Board approval.

    • States can enforce after a California waiver is approved.

Page 3


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LEV and NLEV

  • Four states: NY, MA, VT, and ME have adopted the CA LEV II program

  • Four states in the NE currently participate in the National LEV (NLEV) program

    • voluntary agreement by manufacturers to reduce emissions beyond federal requirements.

    • NLEV states agreed to forebear on adoption of LEV until 2002

    • NLEV will be replaced by Tier 2 between 2004 and 2007

Page 4


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LEV II

  • In 1998, California implemented the second phase of their LEV program (LEV II).

  • Major changes:

    • Addition of SULEV (Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) standard class.

    • Expansion of (to 8500 lbs GVW) and tightening of standards for the LDT2 class (to equal PC and LDT1).

    • Tightened NOx standards for LEV and ULEV classes.

Page 5


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Fleet Average NMOG

Gray denotes possible alternative futures (alternatives that also meet required fleet averages).

Note effect of NLEV in closing Tier 1/LEV I gap.

Page 6


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Tier 2 versus LEV II - Observations (b)

  • Detailed studies have been conducted to quantify the emissions reductions

    • 9/03 NESCAUM study estimates 15-20% HC benefit and 20-25% toxics benefit.

  • LEV approach (declining fleet average) promotes continuing review and update. Conversely, Tier 2 is fixed across time.

    • LEV II will continue to push vehicle technology.

Page 7


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LEV II and GHG

  • Neither LEV II nor Tier 2 currently include specific GHG provisions.

  • However, the ZEV component of LEV promotes advanced technology vehicles, including both high efficiency hybrids and low-carbon fuel SULEVs.

    • While Tier 2 has a zero-emission Bin 1 standard, it includes no associated sales mandate.

    • 9/03 NESCAUM study estimates a 2-3% GHG benefit for LEV relative to Tier 2.

Page 8


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Brief Review of ZEV Mandate (a)

  • LEV is designed to be technology forcing, setting specific ZEV sales mandates independent of fleet average requirements.

    • As originally adopted, LEV required 2% ZEVs in MY98-MY00, 5% in MY01-MY02, and 10% in MY03-MY10.

    • Latest proposal is 10% ZEVs in MY05-MY08, 11% in MY09-MY11, 12% in MY12-MY14, 14% in MY15-MY17, and 16% in MY18+.

Page 9


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Brief Review of ZEV Mandate (b)

  • Latest proposal allows compliance with minimum number of pure ZEVs.

  • Compliance can be achieved with PZEVs (Partial ZEVs) and AT-PZEVs (Advanced Technology PZEVs).

    • Industry must make a minimum number of fuel cell vehicles (250 by MY08, increasing to 50,000 between MY15 and MY18).

    • AT-PZEVs required to account for 40% of compliance.

Page 10


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Brief Review of ZEV Mandate (c)

  • PZEV is a 150K miles SULEV with zero evap and a 15 year/150K mile warranty.

  • AT-PZEV is a PZEV that also has one or more of the following:

    • All electric range, electric vehicle componentry, high pressure gaseous storage system, low fuel-cycle propulsion system.

    • Hybrids and high pressure CNG systems most common current technology capable of high AT-PZEV credits.

Page 11


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California Motor Vehicle GHG Legislation

  • In 2002 former CA Governor Davis signed AB 1493 into law

  • The law requires CARB to develop passenger car GHG emissions standards

  • Regulations must be final by January of 2005 and will affect model year 2009

  • A regulatory proposal will likely be developed by CARB by this summer

Page 12


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Conclusions

  • The LEV II program provides criteria and CO2 emissions reductions above and beyond the Tier 2 program.

  • These benefits result from more stringent evaporative and tailpipe emission standards as well as the LEV advanced technology vehicle requirement.

  • The relative benefits of the LEV program over the federal program will increase over time as more stringent LEV regulations are developed (LEV III for example).

  • Adoption of LEV assists states in meeting air quality goals and GHG emission reduction targets.

Page 13


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Additional Detail and Expanded Explanations of Technical Issues

Page 14


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LEV I (or LEV when implemented)

  • When adopted in 1990, the LEV program represented a watershed approach to vehicle emissions control because:

    • (1) It included multiple levels of emission standards so that not all vehicles had to be controlled uniformly. In effect, a manufacturer could sell some “dirtier than average” vehicles, but only by also selling offsetting “cleaner than average” vehicles.

    • (2) Fuel control was recognized as an integral to emissions control and were regulated accordingly.

Page 15


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LEV I Vehicles

  • LEV I included five vehicle types (as follows, in order of increasing emission standard stringency):

    • Tier 1 vehicles (equivalent to federal standards),

    • Transitional Low Emission Vehicles (TLEVs),

    • Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs),

    • Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEVs), and

    • Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs).

  • An annually declined fleet average standard was also established to ensure increasing numbers of cleaner vehicles each year.

Page 16


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LEV I vs. the Federal Program

  • Unlike the LEV program, the federal program of the early 1990s consisted of a single standard (the so-called Tier 1 standard) that was set to remain fixed for at least a decade.

  • Since Tier 1 was equal in stringency to the least stringent LEV standard (and since ozone compliance remained elusive), other states (for the first time) considered “opting-in” to the LEV program.

Page 17


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LEV II (a)

  • In 1998, California implemented the second phase of their LEV program -- denoted as LEV II -- taking LEV beyond the standards set in LEV I.

  • Major changes:

    • Addition of SULEV (Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) standard class (between ULEV and ZEV).

    • Expansion of (to 8500 lbs GVW) and tightening of standards for the LDT2 class (to equal PC and LDT1).

    • Tightened NOx standards for LEV and ULEV classes.

Page 18


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LEV II (b)

  • Major changes (continued):

    • LD useful life extended to 120K miles (from 100K).

    • Extension of the declining fleet average NMOG standard through 2010 (LEV I stopped at 2003).

    • Optional 150K mile certification (provides 15% credit for fleet average compliance determination -- NMOG for fleet averaging = 0.85  50K NMOG standard).

    • Prohibition of Tier 1 certifications after 2003.

    • Tightened PM standards.

    • Expanded ZEV allowances (discussed later).

Page 19


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Tier 2 versus LEV II (a)

  • In 2000, EPA adopted the federal Tier 2 program that included most of the LEV II provisions.

    • First federal program to include LEV-style multiple certification levels (termed “bins” in Tier 2) and associated fleet average compliance requirements.

  • However, there are continuing differences

    • Some of these differences are fundamental and make comparing the two programs “challenging.”

Page 20


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Tier 2 versus LEV II (b)

  • LEV II sets a fleet average NMOG standard, while Tier 2 sets a fleet average NOx standard.

  • The LEV II fleet average standard is based on 50K mile certification levels, while Tier 2 is based on 120K mile certification.

  • Evaporative emissions standards are more stringent in the LEV II program than in the Tier 2 program.

  • Comparisons between the two programs can be made.

Page 21


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Available NMOG Certification Levels

Page 22


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Available NOx Certification Levels

Page 23


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Available CO Certification Levels

Page 24


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Available PM Certification Levels

Page 25


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Fleet Average NMOG

Gray denotes possible alternative futures (alternatives that also meet required fleet averages).

Note effect of NLEV in closing Tier 1/LEV I gap.

Page 26


Fleet average no x l.jpg

Fleet Average NOx

Gray denotes possible alternative futures (alternatives that also meet required fleet averages).

Note effect of NLEV in closing Tier 1/LEV I gap.

Page 27


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Fleet Average CO

Gray denotes possible alternative futures (alternatives that also meet required fleet averages).

Note effect of NLEV in closing Tier 1/LEV I gap.

Page 28


Fleet average pm l.jpg

Fleet Average PM

Gray denotes possible alternative futures (alternatives that also meet required fleet averages).

Note effect of NLEV in closing Tier 1/LEV I gap.

Page 29


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Evaporative HC

  • LEV II running loss and refueling loss standards are the same as Tier 2 (0.05 g/mi and 0.20 g/gal respectively).

  • However, LEV II diurnal+hot soak standards are substantially more stringent than Tier 2.

    • PC standards are just under 50% more stringent.

    • LDT standards are about 30% more stringent up to 6K GVW, 5% more stringent 6-8.5K GVW.

Page 30


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Tier 2 versus LEV II - Observations (b)

Page 31


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