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The contribution of digital boundary information to good governance for improved decision-making. PART ONE - THE NEED FOR BOUNDARIES. The earth, digital or otherwise, is two-thirds ocean. Humanity intersects with the ocean primarily through the Coastal Zone.

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the contribution of digital boundary information to good governance for improved decision making

The contribution of digital boundary information to good governance for improved decision-making

Good Governance Monahan et al

part one the need for boundaries
PART ONE - THE NEED FOR BOUNDARIES

Good Governance Monahan et al

humanity intersects with the ocean primarily through the coastal zone
Humanity intersects with the ocean primarily through the Coastal Zone
  • eg 60% of the earth’s population lives within 60 km of a coast
  • we dump waste there
  • we extract food, oil and other resources
  • sea level may be rising
  • we don’t know much about it

Good Governance Monahan et al

major forces intersecting at present and for the next decade
Major forces intersecting at present and for the next decade

Increasing Use

UNCLOS

Technology push

Global warming

Population increase

Fish stock decline

More...

Coastal Zone Management and Oceans Governance

Good Governance Monahan et al

increasing and competing demands for access to oceans

Increasing and Competing Demands for Access to Oceans

Traditional/Fishing and (or vs) aquaculture and fish ranching

Hydrocarbon & Mineral Extraction

Defense

Preservation/Protection

Recreation and Ecotourism,

Routing for Cables and Pipelines

Transportation/Shipping

Aboriginal Rights

Good Governance Monahan et al

slide7

The 1982 United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) divides the oceans into Zones, each with its attendant rights and responsibilities.

  • 1992 UNCED
  • 1995 UN Fish Stocks Agreement
  • 1995 FAO Code of Conduct
  • 1995 Compliance Agreement
  • 1995 Global Program of Action
  • 1995 Jakarta Mandate
  • 1997 IMO mandatory routing of vessels
  • 1998-1999 FAO subsidies and overcapacity
  • 1999 CSD Meeting on Oceans and Seas
  • 2002 Rio + 10

Good Governance Monahan et al

unclos is inspiring coastal zone management and oceans governance legislation and programs
UNCLOS is inspiring Coastal Zone Management and Oceans Governance legislation and programs
  • Applied to general areas like Territorial Sea
  • And to specific areas like MPA, Fishing Zones, Traffic Separation Schemes, Pollution control areas, National parks, co-management arrangements

Good Governance Monahan et al

slide9

These three forces intersectmultiple layers of overlapping, confusing and at times contradictory jurisdiction and administration, tinged with historical legal ambiguities, to create a three- dimensional mosaic of private andpublic interests.

Good Governance Monahan et al

example proposed marine protected area musquash estuary
Example -Proposed Marine Protected Area - Musquash Estuary
  • limits of private and public ownership (e.g., ordinary high water mark);
  • limits of private rights (e.g., waterlots, aquaculture sites, oil and gas);
  • municipal, county, provincial, and national limits of jurisdiction and administration;
  • national and international boundaries, including national coastal baselines;
  • government departmental limits;
  • environmental protection areas (e.g., wetlands, sanctuaries)
  • military limits (e.g., disposal and weapons firing ranges);
  • pipeline and cable rights-of-way.

Good Governance Monahan et al

other boundaries and limits that may apply
Other boundaries and limits that may apply
  • Territorial Sea baselines
  • Customs limit
  • Harbour limit
  • Historic wreck area
  • Various types of anchorage areas
  • Fish trap area
  • Limit of safety zone around offshore installation
  • Limits of restricted area (to vessel traffic)

Good Governance Monahan et al

the sources of boundaries
The sources of boundaries
  • same are already drawn on maps
  • some are lines that can be extracted from images or determined through the application of some formula
  • some are contained in legal wording of legislation, common law or international law
  • some are defined by regulations
  • some are embedded in historic or habitual usage
  • some lie within or surrounding un-resolved claims
  • some are based on concepts of which it is difficult to find an unambiguous physical expression (shoreline)

Good Governance Monahan et al

what we are doing to meet the need
WHAT WE ARE DOING TO MEET THE NEED

Good Governance Monahan et al

understanding and resolving marine boundaries requires
Understanding and resolving marine boundaries requires;
  • an interdisciplinary approach
  • inter-Governmental cooperation
  • industrial partners
  • a pan-Canadian view

Good Governance Monahan et al

we have a team from
We have a team from
  • four universities
    • Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering
    • Law
    • Economics
    • Governance
    • Sociology
  • three Government agencies
    • Canadian Hydrographic Service
    • Service New Brunswick
    • Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans
  • and one industrial partner
    • CARIS Ltd
  • spread over 70 degrees of longitude

Good Governance Monahan et al

slide16
Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering., University of New Brunswick

Service New Brunswick

Sociology, Memorial University

Governance, University of Ottawa

Law, University of Victoria

Economics, Memorial University

Law, University of New Brunswick

Canadian Hydrographic Service

CARIS Universal Systems

Department of Fisheries and Oceans

William Byrne, R. Castonguay, Sara Cockburn, M. D\'Arcy, Larry Felt, Roger Guadet , John Hughes Clarke, Maria Innes-Buzeta, Anne LaForest, Wade Locke, Ted McDorman, Dave Monahan, Susan Nichols, Sam Nganga, Gilles Paquet , Rob van der Poll, Michael Sutherland, Dave Wells and Kevin Wilkins

Good Governance of Canada\'s Oceans: Determining the Use, Value, and Potential of Marine Boundary Information

Good Governance Monahan et al

slide17

A research project identifying and evaluating boundary information requirements and investigating spatial data uncertainty and its impact on data integration and boundary delimitation through a series of Case Studies.

  • Evaluate Marine Boundary Requirements
  • Investigate Spatial Data Uncertainty
  • Enhance Prototype Geomatics Technologies
  • Communicate Results to Decision Makers

Good Governance Monahan et al

what we have found so far
WHAT WE HAVE FOUND SO FAR

Good Governance Monahan et al

slide19

1km

  • Case Study 1 - Musquash Estuary
  • Three obvious boundary questions:
  • Where is “a line between Gooseberry Island & Musquash Head?”
  • Which high water?
  • Where is “head of tide”

Special

scallop zone

J.Hughes-Clarke, OMG

Good Governance Monahan et al

which line is the shoreline
Which Line is the shoreline?
  • highest point that sea water ever reaches or the lowest, or somewhere in between?
  • - horizontal distance between these varies from 0 to several km
  • - land mapping use "mean sea level" -
  • navigation charts show 2 lines, the conventional shoreline being the highest level that sea water normally reaches, and a low-water line showing the water level at "lowest normal" tides.

Good Governance Monahan et al

the definition of shoreline depends on context
The definition of shoreline depends on context
  • All rules, regulations and legislation referring to shoreline, to low water line, to water level, etc, must be examined carefully and interpreted in context.
  • Any lines drawn seaward from a land feature might be effected by “shoreline” definition.

Good Governance Monahan et al

slide22

Mapping the lower boundary

Multibeam Hi-resolution

Bathymetry

Good Governance Monahan et al

slide23

Multibeam Bathymetry

  • 10 days operational survey.
  • SNB Orthophotos.
  • Inter-agency cooperation

Good Governance Monahan et al

slide24

Can provide visualization of ocean processes. i.e. Estuarine flushing.

Where should the outer boundary be placed? What about proximity of dump sites?

Good Governance Monahan et al

the intent of a boundary and its physical location might not be co incident
The intent of a boundary and its physical location might not be co-incident.
  • Eg the intent of the Musquash MPA is to protect the area. Its physical boundary defines the area in which MPA regulations apply. Twice a day however, the are is flushed by ocean water from outside the MPA. That water could carry pollutants or other unwanted material. Is the boundary for the MPA appropriate?

Good Governance Monahan et al

slide26

?

Case Study 2: NB Marine Administrative Boundary

Good Governance Monahan et al

case study 3 producing a partial claim to the juridical continental shelf
Case Study #3. Producing a partial claim to the juridical Continental Shelf

Good Governance Monahan et al

candidate areas
Candidate Areas

Good Governance Monahan et al

where we are heading
WHERE WE ARE HEADING

Good Governance Monahan et al

identify and evaluate boundary information requirements for good ocean governance
Identify and Evaluate Boundary Information Requirements for Good Ocean Governance:
  • comprehensive boundary information requirements study
  • a general model of the boundary requirements for "good" ocean governance

Good Governance Monahan et al

investigate spatial data uncertainty and its impact on data integration and boundary delimitation
Investigate Spatial Data Uncertainty and Its Impact on Data Integration and Boundary Delimitation:
  • a model set of the metrics
  • an evaluation of the "goodness" (including appropriateness) of marine boundary information

Good Governance Monahan et al

develop and enhance prototype visualization tools for marine boundary delimitation
Develop and Enhance Prototype Visualization Tools for Marine Boundary Delimitation:
  • suite of technologies and procedures for demonstrating marine boundary problems and solutions
  • prototype demonstration system

Good Governance Monahan et al

communicate the results of the research to decision makers
Communicate the Results of the Research to Decision-Makers:
  • three workshops
  • a set of guidelines for managing marine boundary information
  • strategy for future research and collaboration in ocean governance

Good Governance Monahan et al

find out more
Find out more
  • http://www.unb.ca/GGE/Research/OceanGov/main.html

Good Governance Monahan et al

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