Cellular communication
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Cellular Communication. -All cells communicate -Eukaryotes and prokaryotes!. Communication process usually involves the plasma membrane 2 types: local and long-distance. Local Signaling. Direct contact Gap junctions or plasmodesmata Cytoplasms of cells directly connected

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Cellular Communication

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Cellular communication

Cellular Communication

-All cells communicate

-Eukaryotes and prokaryotes!


Cellular communication

  • Communication process usually involves the plasma membrane

  • 2 types: local and long-distance


Local signaling

Local Signaling

  • Direct contact

    • Gap junctions or plasmodesmata

      • Cytoplasms of cells directly connected

    • Animal cells also by direct contact between membrane-bound molecules

  • Use of messenger molecules for short-distance communication

    • Paracrine signaling

    • Synaptic signaling


  • Long distance

    Long-Distance

    • Use of hormones to travel long distances

      • Nervous and endocrine system


    3 stages of cell signaling

    3 Stages of Cell Signaling


    Reception

    Reception

    • Signaling molecule= ligand

      • Causes a change in the receptor protein

    • Most receptors are found in the plasma membrane

      • Ligands are water-soluble


    Receptors in the plasma membrane

    Receptors in the Plasma Membrane

    • Two Major Types

      • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR)

      • Ligand-gated ion channels


    Ligand gated ion channel

    Ligand-gated ion channel


    Intracellular receptors

    Intracellular Receptors

    • Cytoplasm or nucleus

    • Hydrophobic signals- ex. steroids


    Transduction by cascade

    Transduction by Cascade

    • Transduction of cell signaling usually involves multiple steps

      • Gives possibility of signal amplification

    • Signal transduction pathway usually involves proteins

      • Change in shape of a protein

        • Phosphorylation


    Protein changes

    Protein Changes

    • Protein kinase- adds phosphate groups from ATP to a protein


    Second messengers

    Second Messengers

    • Small, non-protein, water-soluble molecules

      • Ex. Cyclic AMP or Ca2+

    • Easily move through cytoplasm

    • Activate other proteins

    • Epinephrine


    Cholera and interruption of signaling

    Cholera and interruption of signaling

    • Disruption of GPCR


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