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NEBULAR THEORY. http:// Formation of the solar system. Two important features . FIRST: all the planets orbit in nearly the same flat, disk-like region SECOND: all the planets orbit in the same direction around the Sun These two features are important clues to how the solar system formed.

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NEBULAR

THEORY


Http formation of the solar system

http://Formation of the solar system


Two important features
Two important features

  • FIRST: all the planets orbit in nearly the same flat, disk-like region

  • SECOND: all the planets orbit in the same direction around the Sun

  • These two features are important clues to how the solar system formed.


A giant nebula
A Giant Nebula

  • Big cloud of gas and dust

  • Made mostly of hydrogen and helium

  • Contained heavier elements as well

  • Gravity caused the nebula to contract

  • May have come from material leftover from the big bang or from previous supernovas


  • In the Nebular Hypothesis, a cloud of gas and dust collapsed by gravity begins to spin faster because of angular momentum conservation


  • The competing forces associated with gravity, gas pressure, and rotation, the contracting nebula begins to flatten into a spinning pancake shape with a bulge at the center.


  • As the nebula collapses further, instabilities in the collapsing, rotating cloud cause local regions to begin to contract gravitationally. These local regions of condensation will become the Sun and the planets, as well as their moons and other debris in the Solar System.


Formation of the sun
Formation of the Sun collapsing, rotating cloud cause local regions to begin to contract gravitationally. These local regions of condensation will become the Sun and the planets, as well as their moons and other debris in the Solar System.

  • Sun first object to form in the solar system

  • Gravity pulled matter together to the center of the disk

  • Density and pressure increased

  • Nuclear fusion reactions began


Formation of the planets
Formation of the planets collapsing, rotating cloud cause local regions to begin to contract gravitationally. These local regions of condensation will become the Sun and the planets, as well as their moons and other debris in the Solar System.

  • The outer parts of the disk were cooling off

  • Small pieces of dust started clumping together

  • Clumps collided and combined with other clumps

  • Larger clumps attracted smaller clumps with their gravity

  • Eventually, all these pieces grew into the planets and moons that we find in our solar system today


The outer planets
The outer planets collapsing, rotating cloud cause local regions to begin to contract gravitationally. These local regions of condensation will become the Sun and the planets, as well as their moons and other debris in the Solar System.

Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

  • Condensed from lighter materials such as

    • Hydrogen

    • Helium

    • Water

    • Ammonia

    • Methane

      It is so cold by Jupiter and beyond that these materials can form solid particles


The inner planets
The inner planets collapsing, rotating cloud cause local regions to begin to contract gravitationally. These local regions of condensation will become the Sun and the planets, as well as their moons and other debris in the Solar System.

Mercury Venus Earth Mars

  • Formed from denser elements

    • Iron

    • Silicon

    • Magnesium

    • Sulfur

    • Aluminum

    • Calcium

    • Nickel

      These elements are solid even when close to the Sun


Radiometric dating
Radiometric Dating collapsing, rotating cloud cause local regions to begin to contract gravitationally. These local regions of condensation will become the Sun and the planets, as well as their moons and other debris in the Solar System.

  • Half-life is the common way to describe the length of time it takes for half the atoms in a particular element to decay

  • To find a radioactive date the object being dated must contain a radioactive element

  • Uranium-235 – half-life 704 million years

  • Carbon 14 – half-life 5720 years

  • The elements decay by emitting a small part of the atom.


Radiometric dating continued
Radiometric Dating Continued collapsing, rotating cloud cause local regions to begin to contract gravitationally. These local regions of condensation will become the Sun and the planets, as well as their moons and other debris in the Solar System.

  • As the element decays it becomes something new

  • Determining the ratio of the radioactive element in the sample, it can be determined how long that item has been around.


  • ­As soon as a living organism dies, it stops taking in new carbon.

  • The ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14 at the moment of death is the same as every other living thing, but the carbon-14 decays and is not replaced.

  • The carbon-14 decays with its half-life of 5,700 years, while the amount of carbon-12 remains constant in the sample.

  • By looking at the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14 in the sample and comparing it to the ratio in a living organism, it is possible to determine the age of a formerly living thing fairly precisely.


Age of the solar system
Age of the solar system carbon.

  • Based on the age of the oldest meteorites and radiometric dating the age of the solar system is calculated to about 4.56 billion years


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