Chemical Reactions in Cells. Energetics, Enzymes and Metabolic Reactions. Energy. Energy is the capacity for work or change. Kinetic Energy = energy of movement Potential Energy = stored energy 1 st Law of Thermodynamics
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Energetics, Enzymes and Metabolic Reactions
Pairing of an Exergonic reaction, often involving ATP, with an Endergonic reaction
Note that overall free energy change is negative
Enzymes are biological catalysts.
biological: composed of protein or, rarely, RNA
catalyst: speeds up a reaction without being changed by the reaction
–The value of and the ratio of reactants and products at equilibrium is the same as for an uncatalyzed reactionProperties of Enzymes
Rate no longer increases since the active sites of all enzymes are saturated with substrate
Rate is more rapid
Rate is proportional to substrate concentration
Feedback InhibitionIsoleucine allosterically inhibits enzyme 1Enzyme Regulation: Feedback Inhibition
Feedback Inhibition: The product of a pathway inhibits an initial step in the pathway to decrease its own production
enzyme unfolds(denatures)Effects of Temperature and pH on Enzymatic Activity
Where do the substrates bind?
Enzymes (raise or lower) the (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5) of a reaction.
What is the model for a shape change caused by substrate binding to the enzyme?
Induced fitApplying Your Knowledge