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# Number Functions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Number Functions. Review. single-row character functions character case-manipulation functions LOWER, UPPER, INITCAP character-manipulation functions CONCAT, SUBSTR, LENGTH, INSTR LPAD, RPAD TRIM REPLACE. What Will I Learn?. single-row number functions ROUND, TRUNC, and MOD

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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Number Functions' - callia

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### Number Functions

• single-row character functions

• character case-manipulation functions

• LOWER, UPPER, INITCAP

• character-manipulation functions

• CONCAT, SUBSTR,

• LENGTH, INSTR

• TRIM

• REPLACE

• single-row number functions

• ROUND, TRUNC, and MOD

• Distinguish between TRUNC and ROUND when they are applied to a numeric value

• State the implications for business when applying TRUNC and ROUND to numeric values

• One of the reasons we put our money in a bank is to take advantage of the interest it accumulates over time.

• Banks adjust the interest rate with various economic indicators such as inflation and the stock market.

• Typically, interest rates are expressed as a percent such as 3.45%.

• What if a bank decided to round the percentage rate to 3.5%? Would it be to your advantage?

• What if they decided to just drop the decimal values and calculate the interest at 3%, would you be happy then?

• Rounding and truncating numbers play an important part in business and in turn with the databases that support these businesses as they store and access numeric data.

• accept numeric input and return numeric values

• The three number functions are:

• ROUND

• TRUNC

• MOD

• Used to round numbers to a specified number of decimal places.

• ROUND can also be used to round numbers to the left of the decimal point.

• ROUND can also be used with dates.

• Syntax

• ROUND(column|expression, decimal places)

select round(2.55,1) from dual;

• If the number of decimal places is a positive number, the number is rounded to that number of decimal places.

• If the number of decimal places is a negative number, numbers to the left of the decimal are rounded.

• if the number of decimal places is not specified or is zero, the number will round to no decimal places.

• For NUMBER values, the value n is rounded away from 0 (for example, to x+1 when x.5 is positive and to x-1 when x.5 is negative).

• For BINARY_FLOAT and BINARY_DOUBLE values, the function rounds to the nearest even value. Please refer to the examples that follow.

• Used to terminate the column,expression, or value to a specified number of decimal places.

• TRUNC can also be used with dates.

• Syntax

• TRUNC(column|expression, decimal places)

• TRUNC (45.926, 2) yields 45.92

• if the TRUNC expression does not specify the number of decimal places or specifies a zero, the number is truncated to zero decimal places.

• TRUNC (45.926) yields 45

• For NUMBER and BINARY_FLOAT and BINARY_DOUBLE values, the rule is the same now.

• Used to return the remainder when one number is divided by another.

• For example, the MOD of 5 divided by 2 = 1.

• Returns n2 if n1 is 0.

• This function behaves differently from the classical mathematical modulus function when m is negative. The classical modulus can be expressed using the MOD function with this formula:

m - n * FLOOR(m/n)

FLOOR(n) returns largest integer equal to or less than n.

• MOD can be used to determine whether a value is odd or even.

• If MOD(n,2) equals 0,n is even

• If MOD(n,2) equals 1,n is odd

SELECT last_name, salary

FROM f_staffs

WHERE MOD(salary, 2)=0;

• The above query will show the staffs whose salary is an even

number.

• Key terms used in this lesson include:

• Number functions

• MOD

• ROUND

• TRUNC

• Select and apply the single-row number functions ROUND, TRUNC, and MOD in a SQL query

• Distinguish between the results obtained when TRUNC is applied to a numeric value and ROUND is applied to a numeric value

• State the implications for business when applying TRUNC and ROUND to numeric values