Millennium development goals employment indicators
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Millennium Development Goals Employment Indicators. Astana October 2009. Theo Sparreboom Employment Trends International Labour Organization Geneva, Switzerland. MDG Employment Indicators Overview.

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Millennium Development Goals Employment Indicators

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Millennium development goals employment indicators

Millennium Development GoalsEmployment Indicators

AstanaOctober 2009

Theo Sparreboom

Employment TrendsInternational Labour Organization

Geneva, Switzerland


Mdg employment indicators overview

MDG Employment IndicatorsOverview

BackgroundEmployment indicatorsGlobal and regional estimates and trends Monitoring national labour markets


Mdg employment indicators background

MDG Employment IndicatorsBackground

Following the 2005 World Summit, and the work of the Commission for Social Development as well as the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG indicators, a new target has been included under MDG1 (Target 1b):

Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including for women and young people

The new target is monitored using four new employment indicators, which are additional to the existing indicator under MDG3 on gender equality.


Mdg employment indicators background1

MDG Employment IndicatorsBackground

  • All five employment indicators (under MDG1b and MDG3) are explained in detail in the Guide to the new Millennium Development Goals Employment Indicators, which is available at:

    http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/docu/index.htm

  • The Guide includes definitions, data sources, calculations and analytical examples.

  • The Guide also includes the full set of Decent Work Indicators, which allows for comprehensive monitoring of decent work.


Mdg employment indicators

MDG Employment Indicators

MDG1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, Target B (‘decent work’)

  • Employment-to-population ratios for persons aged 15+ and youth (15-24) by sex

  • Vulnerable employment rate by sex

  • Working poverty rate

  • Labour productivity growth rate

MDG3 Promote gender equality and empower women

  • Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector


Mdg1b indicators employment to population ratio

MDG1B indicators Employment-to-population ratio

  • Employment-to-population ratios for persons aged 15+ and youth (15-24) by sex

  • The EPR measures the proportion of a country’s working age population that is employed

  • EPR= Total employment/working age population * 100%

  • Source of data: labour force survey or other household survey/population census with data on population and employment


Mdg1b indicators employment to population ratio1

MDG1B indicators Employment-to-population ratio

  • There is no single ‘correct’ employment-to-population ratio, but national EPRs are typically between 50-75 per cent

  • Careful analysis of EPRs can be used to identify labour market issues such as low incomes, inadequate social security or gender imbalances. Analysis should cover comparisons of EPRs between labour market groups defined by sex or age, international comparisons, comparisons over time, etc.

  • Analysis of labour market issues often necessitates investigation of additional indicators, e.g. vulnerable employment rates, unemployment rates, or enrolment rates in education.


Mdg1b indicators employment to population ratio2

MDG1B indicators Employment-to-population ratio

Employment-to-population ratio, selected regions, 1991-2008

Source: ILO, Trends Econometric Models, July 2009


Millennium development goals employment indicators

MDG1B indicators Employment-to-population ratio

Employment-to-population ratio, CSEE & CIS, 1991-2008, by sex

Source: ILO, Trends Econometric Models, July 2009

Source: ILO, Trends Econometric Models, July 2009


Mdg1b indicators vulnerable employment rate

MDG1B indicators Vulnerable employment rate

  • Vulnerable employment rate for persons aged 15+ by sex

  • The vulnerable employment rate is a measure of the more vulnerable statuses of employment, namely own account workers and contributing family workers

  • Vulnerable employment rate = (number of own-account workers + number of contributing family workers)/total employment * 100%

  • The rate is typically related to level of GDP per capita

  • Source of data: labour force survey or other household surveys with data on status in employment


Mdg1b indicators vulnerable employment rate1

MDG1B indicators Vulnerable employment rate

Vulnerable employment rate, selected countries ranked by GDP per capita

Source: ILO, Key Indicators of the Labour Market, 5th ed., 2007


Mdg1b indicators vulnerable employment rate2

MDG1B indicators Vulnerable employment rate

Global vulnerable employment rate, 1997-2007

Source: ILO, Trends Econometric Models, July 2009


Mdg1b indicators working poverty rate

MDG1B indicators Working poverty rate

  • Working poverty rate for persons aged 15+

  • The working poor are defined as employed persons living in a household whose members are estimated to be below the nationally-defined poverty line

  • Working poverty rate = working poor/total employment* 100%

  • Source of data: household surveys with both employment and income & expenditure data; if data on employment and poverty come from different sources, an approximation may be used to arrive at the working poverty rate (see the Guide to the new Millennium Development Goals Employment Indicators)


Mdg1b indicators working poverty rate1

MDG1B indicators Working poverty rate

Working poverty US$ 1.25, by region, 1997 and 2007

Source: ILO, Trends Econometric Models, July 2009


Millennium development goals employment indicators

MDG1B indicators Growth rate of labour productivity

  • Labour productivity represents the amount of output achieved per unit of labour input

  • Labour productivity = GDP [measured at constant market prices in national currency]/ total employment

  • Labour productivity growth rate is measured as the annual change in GDP per person employed

  • Labour productivity can be used to assess to which extent the economic environment allows for the creation of decent employment opportunities

  • Source of data: labour force survey or other household survey/population census with data on employment, in combination with data from national accounts


Millennium development goals employment indicators

MDG1B indicators Growth rate of labour productivity

Source: ILO, Trends Econometric Models, July 2009


Mdg employment indicators global regional estimates and trends

MDG Employment IndicatorsGlobal & regional estimates and trends

  • More detailed analysis is provided in Global Employment Trends reports and updates, which include additional indicators, available at:

    http://www.ilo.org/trends

  • Global Employment Trends reports and updates are based on country information, in particular information from labour force surveys stored in international repositories (ILO, OECD, etc.)

  • In addition, (benchmark) data on population (UN), labour force (ILO), GDP (IMF and World Bank), and poverty (World Bank) is used.


Mdg employment indicators global regional estimates and trends1

MDG Employment IndicatorsGlobal & regional estimates and trends

  • The series of Global Employment Trends uses econometric models to address the issue of missing values at the country level

  • The main purpose of the models is to generate regional estimates in the absence of a complete set of country data on employment, unemployment and working poverty

  • The models are also used to generate short term projections (scenarios) at the regional and global level, based on a set of specific assumptions


Millennium development goals employment indicators

Global & regional estimates and trendsLabour market scenarios for 2009

Global employment-to-population rate, 2000- 2009


Millennium development goals employment indicators

Global & regional estimates and trendsLabour market scenarios for 2009

Employment-to-population rate in CSEE&CIS, 2000- 2009


Millennium development goals employment indicators

Global & regional estimates and trendsLabour market scenarios for 2009

Unemployment rate in CSEE&CIS, 2000- 2009


Millennium development goals employment indicators

Global & regional estimates and trendsLabour market scenarios for 2009

Vulnerable employment rate in CSEE&CIS, 2000- 2009


Mdg employment indicators monitoring national labour markets

MDG Employment IndicatorsMonitoring national labour markets

  • Key Indicators of the Labour Market, 6th edition, contains a broader set of employment indicators, with an analysis of recent trends for each indicator.

    • Indicators on the volume of employment, including labour force participation and employment-to-population rates, hours of work, underemployment, part-time employment

    • Employment by status and sector

    • Educational attainment

    • Wage and earning indices

    • Labour productivity

  • The KILM also includes a section with country examples of analysis of the MDG employment indicators, and their linkages with other indicators.


  • Mdg employment indicators monitoring national labour markets1

    MDG Employment IndicatorsMonitoring national labour markets

    KILM 2009 Chapter 1c. MDG Employment Indicators –

    Analysis of five MDG employment indicators for Ukraine:

    • Regional comparisons

    • Linkages between indicators (e.g. productivity, wages and poverty)

    • Many possibilities for additional disaggregations (e.g. by geographical area, age, sex, etc.)

    • Scope for deeper analysis using other employment indicators (e.g. employment by sector) and other indicators (set of decent work indicators, e.g. wage developments, poverty)


    Millennium development goals employment indicators

    Thank you!


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