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McGraw-Hill. © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter. 6. Decision Making. McGraw-Hill. © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, you should be able to:.

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Mcgraw hill

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Mcgraw hill

Chapter

6

Decision Making

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Learning objectives after reading this chapter you should be able to

Learning ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Know how to implement the six stages of management decision making.

  • Apply the criteria of quality and acceptance to a decision.

  • Recognize the characteristics of management decisions: programmability, uncertainty, risk, conflict, and decision scope.

  • Reap the advantages and avoid the disadvantages of group decision making.

  • Develop the skill of time management to allow adequate time to make decisions.

  • Know when to delegate, and do so wisely.

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Introduction

Introduction

  • Making decisions under conditions of risk and uncertainty is one of the most important activities that managers engage in.

  • Generally, there is a lack of information and a limited amount of time available to make the decision.

  • Procrastinating and not making a decision sometimes has greater risk than making it.

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© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Decision making

Decision Making

  • The process of identifying problems and opportunities and resolving them.

  • Management decisions can be made by managers, teams, or individual employees, depending on:

    • The scope of the decision, and

    • The design and structure of the organization.

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© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Characteristics of management decision making

Characteristics of Management Decision Making

Programmability

Decision Scope

Uncertainty

Conflict

Risk

Crisis

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Characteristics of management decision making cont

Characteristics of Management Decision Making (Cont)

Programmed Decisions

Programmability

Non-programmed Decisions

Certainty

Uncertainty

Uncertainty

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Characteristics of management decision making cont1

Characteristics of Management Decision Making (Cont)

  • Risk – occurs when the outcome of management decision is uncertain

    • Risk has both positive and negative aspects

    • Decision environment for risk vary depending upon company culture and size

  • Conflict – occurs when there are opposing goals, scares resources, or differences in priorities

  • Crisis – a situation that involves small amounts of time to make a decision that can impact the survival of the organization

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Characteristics of management decision making cont2

Characteristics of Management Decision Making (Cont)

  • Decision Scope – the effect and time horizon of a decision

    • Strategic Decisions – long term perspective of 2-5 years and affect on the organization

    • Tactical Decisions – short term perspective of 1 year or less and focus on subunits

    • Operational Decisions – shortest time perspective, generally less than a year, often measured on a daily or weekly basis

McGraw-Hill

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Stages of decision making

Stages of Decision Making

Identifying and diagnosing the problem

Generating alternative solutions

Selecting the best alternative

Evaluating alternatives

Implementing the decision

Evaluating the decision

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Typical problems that require decisions

Typical problems that require decisions

  • A high level of employee turnover.

  • A reduction in firm profits.

  • Unacceptable levels of “shrinkage” in a store.

  • Lower than planned quality of finished goods.

  • An unexpected increase in workplace injuries.

  • The invention of a new technology that can increase the productivity of the workforce.

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© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Evaluating alternatives

Evaluating Alternatives

  • Decision criteria should be related to the performance goals of the organization and its subunits.

  • Decision criteria can include:

    • Costs

    • Profits

    • Timeliness

    • Whether the decision will work

    • Fairness

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Evaluating alternatives continued

Evaluating Alternatives(continued)

  • A practical way to apply decision criteria is to consider:

    • Decisionquality – aspect of decision making based on such facts as costs, revenues, and product design specifications.

    • Decision acceptance – aspect of decision making based on people’s feelings.

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Approaches to selecting the best alternative

Approaches to selecting the best alternative

  • Optimizing – selecting the best alternative from among multiple criteria.

  • Satisficing – selecting the first alternative solution that meets a minimum criterion.

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Key factors for successful implementation

Key factors for successful implementation

  • Providing resources (staff, budgets, office space) that will be needed for the activities that are required for successful implementation.

  • Exercising leadership to persuade others to move the implementation forward.

  • Developing communicationand information systems that enable management to know if the decision alternative is meeting its planned objectives.

  • Recognition and rewards for individuals and teams that are successful with implementation.

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Assumptions of the rational decision making process

Assumptions of the Rational Decision Making Process

  • The problem is clear and unambiguous.

  • There is a single, well-defined goal that all parties agree to.

  • Full information is available about criteria.

  • All the alternatives and their consequences are known.

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Assumptions of the rational decision making process continued

Assumptions of the Rational Decision Making Process(continued)

  • The decision preferences are clear.

  • The decision preferences are constant and stable over time.

  • There are no time and cost constraints affecting the decision.

  • The decision solution will maximize the economic payoff.

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Factors that limit rational decision making

Factors That Limit Rational Decision Making

Organization Politics

Emotions and Personal Preferences

Illusion of Control

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Nonrational decision making models

Nonrational Decision Making Models

Satisficing Model

  • Bounded rationality – the ability of a manager to be perfectly rational is limited by factors such as cognitive capacity and time constraints

  • Therefore, decision makers apply heuristics , or decision rules, that quickly eliminate alternatives

  • By using the heuristic known as satisficing, a manager seeks out the first decision alternative that appears to be satisfactory

  • Satisficing is an accurate model many management decisions.


Nonrational decision making models continued

Nonrational Decision Making Models (continued)

Garbage Can Model

  • This model suggests that managers have a set of preestablished solutions to problems located in “garbage cans.”

  • The garbage can model is likely to be used when decision makers are undisciplined and have no clear immediate goals.

  • The decision making process lacks structure

  • This can lead to serious difficulties


Advantages and disadvantages of group decision making

Advantages

Increased acceptance

Greater pool of knowledge

Different perspectives

Greater comprehension

Training ground

Disadvantages

Social pressure

Minority domination

Logrolling

Goal displacement

“Groupthink”

Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Decision Making

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Managing group decision making

Managing Group Decision Making

Leadership Style

Devil’s Advocate Role

Stimulating Creativity

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Leader decision making styles

Leader Decision Making Styles

  • Decide and persuade

  • Discover facts and decide

  • Consult and decide

  • Consult with group and decide

  • Group decision

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Decision making techniques to stimulate group creativity

Decision Making Techniques to Stimulate Group Creativity

Brainstorming

Storyboarding

Delphi Technique

Nominal Group Technique (NGT)

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Skills for decision making process

Skills for decision making process

  • Time management skills

    • To make good decisions, managers need time to understand the problem and develop creative solutions.

  • Delegation skills

    • Managers who know how to delegate are able to accomplish more than those who feel the need to be involved in every decision, no matter how trivial.

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Effective time management practices

Effective Time Management Practices

  • Plan a list of things that need to be done today.

  • Plan weekly, monthly, and annual schedules of activities.

  • Schedule difficult and challenging activities when you are at your highest level of energy and alertness.

  • Set deadlines.

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Effective time management practices continued

Effective Time Management Practices(continued)

  • Answer phone messages and e-mail in batches during a lull in your work schedule.

  • Have a place to work uninterrupted.

  • Do something productive during non-productive activities.

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Effective delegation

Effective Delegation

  • Determine what you want done.

  • Match the desired task with the most appropriate employee.

  • Communicate clearly when assigning the task.

    • Ask questions to make sure the task is fully understood.

    • Set clear guidelines.

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Effective delegation continued

Effective Delegation(continued)

  • Keep communication channels open.

  • Allow employees to do the task the way they feel comfortable doing it.

  • Trust employees’ capabilities.

  • Check on the progress of the assignment.

  • Hold the employee responsible for the work.

  • Recognize what the employee has done, and show appropriate appreciation.

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Applications of management perspectives for the manager

Applications of Management Perspectives—For the Manager

  • Procrastination is a major barrier to effective decision making.

  • Managers need to establish clear priorities by:

    • Determining which activities produce the greatest value.

    • Setting dates for completion of these activities.

  • Setting priorities forces managers to make decisions and helps control procrastination.

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Applications of management perspectives for managing teams

Applications of Management Perspectives—For Managing Teams

  • Overly relying on team meetings is a barrier to making effective team decisions.

  • A team should be able to manage its workflow if:

    • Subgroups or individual team members are assigned tasks; and

    • They are given responsibility for decision making associated with these tasks.

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Applications of management perspectives for individuals

Applications of Management Perspectives—For Individuals

  • When you feel fearful, angry, anxious, or frustrated:

    • You are not likely to think clearly and focus on the problem.

    • It is not a good time to make a decision.

  • It is better to postpone the decision until after you have coped with the source of the stress and are in a more comfortable emotional state.

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