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Carbon Emissions. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Atmospheric increase = Emissions from fossil fuels  + Net emissions from changes in land use  - Oceanic uptake  - Terrestrial sinks. Atmospheric CO 2. Humans emit 24 billion tons per year. 60% stays in atmosphere

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Increasing atmospheric co2 concentration
Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration

Atmospheric increase

= Emissions from fossil fuels 

+ Net emissions from changes in land use 

- Oceanic uptake 

- Terrestrial sinks


Atmospheric co 2
Atmospheric CO2

  • Humans emit 24 billion tons per year.

  • 60% stays in atmosphere

  • Increases atmospheric CO2 by 0.4% / year.

  • 25% increase from

    280 ppm to 350 ppm


Co2 550 ppm to 1000 ppm in 2100
CO2  550 ppm to 1000 ppm in 2100


Temperature increase 1 5 o c 6 o c by 2100
Temperature Increase: 1.5 oC – 6 oC by 2100



What are some adaptation steps
What are some adaptation steps?

  • Protect endangered species with larger refuges.

  • Avoid flooding risks.

  • Protect water supplies.

  • Protect grasslands and agricultural lands against overuse.


Mitigation
Mitigation

  • Protection of rainforests and other CO2 sinks.

  • Techniques to sequester CO2

  • Reduce CO2 emissions by reducing fossil fuel consumption


Mitigation carbon sequestration
Mitigation: Carbon Sequestration


Mitigation reduce fossil fuel emission
Mitigation: Reduce Fossil Fuel Emission

We will address this issue in the remainder of the course.


Carbon emission coefficient million metric tons of carbon qbtu
Carbon Emission Coefficient(Million Metric Tons of Carbon/QBtu)


Global carbon emission
Global Carbon Emission

  • Global Carbon Emission of C in the form of CO2:

    6.6 billion metric tons

  • Convert to CO2:

    44/12 x 6.6 billion metric tons

    = 24 billion metric tons


Calculate us carbon emissions
Calculate US Carbon Emissions

US Carbon Emission =

26 MMT/QBtu x 22 QBtu

+ 19 MMT/QBtu x 38 Qbtu

+ 14 MMT/QBtu x 23 QBtu

= 1.6 Billion Metric Tons


Calculate us carbon emissions1
Calculate US Carbon Emissions

US / Global

= 1.6 BMT / 6.6 BMT

= 24 %

The US emits 24% of Global CO2.



Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse Gases

  • The relative contribution of the major GHG to global warming are shown below:

    • CO2 84%

    • CH4 9%

    • N2O 5%


Co2 emissions are associated with consumption of fossil fuels
CO2 emissions are associated with consumption of Fossil Fuels

  • US CO2 emissions are 24% of global emissions.

    • Global: 24,500 million tons

    • US: 5,800 million tons



The kyoto protocol is an international treaty to reduce ghg emission
The Kyoto Protocol is an International Treaty to Reduce GHG emission

  • Organized by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change

  • Adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan

  • Will come into force early in 2005.


Annex i countries have a crucial role
Annex I countries have a crucial role. emission

  • Between 2008-2012 reduce their GHG emissions by 5% below 1990 levels.

  • Different countries would have different targets.

  • US had agreed to reduce by 7% below 1990 levels.

  • Countries may offset emissions by increasing sinks.


Annex i countries
Annex I Countries emission

  • 24 developed countries (OECD – Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)

  • European Union

  • 14 countries with economies in transition. (e.g. Croatia)


Kyoto treaty ratification
Kyoto Treaty Ratification emission

  • 127 parties have signed it.

  • Countries accounting for 55% of CO2 emissions in 1990 had to sign it for it to come into effect.

  • When Russia ratified it, the signatories represented 61% of 1990 emissions.

  • The US has not signed the treaty.


Developing nations
Developing Nations emission

  • Obligated to reduce GHG emissions.

  • Do not have specific emission reduction targets.

  • Treaty has provisions to help LDC reduce GHG emissions.


Innovative mechanisms joint implementation
Innovative Mechanisms: emissionJoint Implementation

  • An Annex I party develops a project that decreases emissions or increases sinks in another Annex I party.


Innovative mechanisms clean development mechanism
Innovative Mechanisms: emissionClean Development Mechanism

  • An Annex I party implements CO2 sequestration or emission reduction projects in a non-Annex I party (e.g. reforestation in Costa Rica) and receives credits to meet its own targets.


Innovative mechanisms emissions trading
Innovative Mechanisms: emissionEmissions Trading

  • An Annex I party transfers some of its emissions to another country for a price. This process allows the free market to operate to reduce the cost of emissions reduction. Companies that broker deals already exist.


Why didn t the us ratify kyoto
Why didn’t the US ratify Kyoto? emission

  • US energy-related CO2 emissions in 2010 are projected to be 34 percent above the 1990 level.

  • Emission reduction policy to reduce emissions would have significant impacts on the US economy.

  • No emission targets for China & India


What steps could the us take to reduce co2 emissions
What steps could the US take to reduce CO2 emissions? emission

  • We will look at this question in detail during the remainder of the semester.


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