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ASAS STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI. PP L Universiti Putra Malaysia. Unit IV. Group Comm Strategies Ch 10: Fundamental aspects Ch 11: Meetings: Forums for Problem Solving Ch 12: Negotiation & Conflict Management. DETAILS OF UNIT IV. Ch 10:Fundamental Aspects “A person is a member to

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Asas strategi komunikasi

ASAS STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI

PPL

Universiti Putra Malaysia



Details of unit iv

Group Comm Strategies

Ch 10: Fundamental aspects

Ch 11: Meetings: Forums for Problem Solving

Ch 12: Negotiation & Conflict Management

DETAILS OF UNIT IV


Group comm strategies chapter 10

Ch 10:Fundamental Aspects

“A person is a member to

a vast number of groups”.

GROUP COMM STRATEGIES: Chapter 10


Fundamental aspects

Group’s functioning when each member…

…knows another by name/ role

…have a considerable amount of interactions

…have some degree of influence

…share some common goal, interest, etc.

…recognized a leadership of a leader

Fundamental Aspects


Fundamental aspects1

Factors influencing groups

Cohesiveness (the degree to which a group hangs together in a challenging environ’mt)

Norms (respects, formalities, routines)

Roles (Isolate/ Facilitator/ Dominator/ Harmonizer/ Free-rider)

Conformity&Groupthink)

Fundamental Aspects


Fundamental aspects norms

Consider the following norms:

Negative criticism of another person is unacceptable.

Meetings are “strictly business.”

First names are not to be used during meetings.

The discussion of a single topic cannot exceed ten minutes.

Fundamental Aspects: Norms


Fundamental aspects roles

Roles often played by members:

Isolate: Sits & fails to participate

Facilitator: Makes sure that everyone talks

Dominator: Speaks too often & too long

Harmoniser: Keeps tensions low

Free-rider: Doesn’t do the share of the work

Fundamental Aspects: Roles


Fundamental aspects groupthink

Symptoms of Groupthink

Close-mindedness

Pressure toward uniformity of action & decisions

Tendency to view itself as powerful & omnipotent

Minimizing Groupthink (a leader’s initiative)

Form an aggressive min provoking group

Injecting diversity into a group

Fundamental Aspects: Groupthink


Group leadership

A LEADER MUST…

…POSSESS TRAITS (i.e. higher in…intelligence; scholarship; dependability; responsibility; activity; visions; exhibiting power; taking risks; transformation; etc.)

…POSSESS STYLES (i.e. in handling task; communication; pressure; action; decision; etc.)

…AVOID extreme rigidity; offensive behavior; offensive verbalization; uninformativeness; extreme practice of authoritative bahvior, etc.

Group Leadership


Group leadership charac s of a successful leader

Yakin / Optimism -positive thinking.

Tabah / Persistence -never give up.

Azam tinggi / Passion -undivided interest.

Akauntabal / Accountable -accepting blames on failure.

Perkongsian / Sharing the Credits -success is everybody’s contribution -not oneself alone

Group leadership: Charac/s of a successful leader


Group comm strategies

Ch 11: Meetings: Forums for Problem Solving

“An agenda is like a road map; it gets you to a destination.”

GROUP COMM STRATEGIES:


Meetings forums for problem solving

Goals to consider:

Organizational goals

Group goals

Personal goals

Meetings: Forums for Problem Solving


Meetings forums for problem solving1

Options for Decision Making:

Veto / Authoritative

Consensus / Consultation

Vote / Democracy

Meditate (Japanese culture)

(The Table of Aristotle – from 40 manuscripts)

Meetings: Forums for Problem Solving


Group comm strategies1

Ch 12: Negotiation & Conflict Managem’nt

“Negotiations & conflicts are essential for the growth of a company.”

GROUP COMM STRATEGIES:


Negotiation conflict management

Argumentativeness

Attacking point of views.

Verbal aggressiveness

Attacking people / personal matters.

Negotiation & Conflict Management


General perception on conflict
General Perception on Conflict

  • Couldn’t be resolved

  • Black magic / hocus pocus!

  • Fate / Born to fail

  • God’s wrath / punishment

  • Conflict is an all-negative occurrence.


Conflict the fact
Conflict: The Fact!

Conflict is actually:

  • Natural facts of life -happens all the time.

  • Everyone has experienced facing it.

  • Empowering individuals in its own way.

  • Empowering group experiences.

  • Makes everyone realizes:

    • “The glory of life doesn’t stop you from falling!”


Types of group conflicts

False Conflicts (due to…)

Comm problems – technological / language wise

Inadequate infos. & Misunderstandings

Easy Conflict

Everyone is clear about the matter of the conflict

Ego Conflict (egocentric being)

The most difficult to resolve

Argumentation is upon personal matters –(Steinberg, 1975)

Types of Group Conflicts


Negotiation conflict management1
Negotiation & Conflict Management

APPROACHES

  • AUTHORITATIVE

  • NEGOTIATION

  • DIVERSION

  • SPIRITUAL


Authoritative
Authoritative

  • A leader must sit or stand higher than the rest – then only he speaks.

  • If the leader also panic, someone must take charge (with permission).

  • Strict directive / order (Disobedience is fatal!)

  • Informing the higher authority (polis, etc.)

  • Get an assistance from the third party


Negotiation
Negotiation

Whom to Negotiate with?

  • Group Leader (The Patron / Director)

  • Group of Leaders (Board of Directors)

  • Group Committees (Follow the ranks)

  • Group members (Consensus)

    • Only for non-emergency matters.


Diversion
Diversion

Change the members’ thinking orientation:

  • By injecting humors… (jika berbakat)

  • By exercising… (sekadar perlu)

  • By asking… (jgn keterlaluan)

  • By gossiping… (elakkan yg sensitif)

  • By telling a relevant story… (short only!)


Spiritual
Spiritual

  • Reciting…

    • Religious texts

  • Singing…

    • Patriotic songs

    • Any motivational songs

  • Shouting..

    • Group motto

    • Encouraging words: Malaysia Boleh!


Decision making processes and managing conflicts
Decision Making Processes and Managing Conflicts

  • Consider All Factors (CAF):

    • Considering every single factors before making any move.

  • First Things First (FTF) :

    • Acting in accordance and systematically. (Eg: The ritual of dressing up... Bathing, drying up, wearing under wears, then the pants and shirt.


Decision making processes and managing conflicts1
Decision Making Processes and Managing Conflicts

  • Feit-Accompli:

    • Making a personal move before discussing with the superior. (Normally applied only when deciding on small issues - e.g. buy first and claim later).

  • Steam-releaser:

    • Letting a person releasing his tension.

      (as long as he doesn’t bring any harm). Normally, the person’s anger will cool off.


Decision Making Processes and Managing Conflicts

Others:

  • Dateline pusher

  • Silent treatment

  • See-saw techniques

  • Salami slicing approach

  • Win-Lose / Lose-Lose / Win-Win

  • Six Thinking Hats (Edward de Bono):

    • Golden hat – Religious, Culture, Customs, Rituals!

    • Red; Yellow; Blue; Green; Black; White



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