CLIMATE Change Indicators: Upper Atmosphere. Changes occurring in the Lower Atmosphere (Troposphere). Arctic sea ice Glaciers Lake ice Snow cover Snowpack Growing season Plant hardiness Leaf/Bloom dates Bird wintering ranges. Global Temperatures GHG emissions
It’s easy to notice or hear about change when it’s happening around you (in the troposphere)
What about the other layers of the atmosphere? Are changes occurring there?
Incoherent Scatter Radar
2000 happening around you (in the troposphere)
MIT HaystackWhere are Incoherent Scatter Radars?
This map shows all of the world's operational incoherent scatter radars
There are only 9 worldwide (as of 2000)
Wikipedia | Credit Tom Grydeland
NOAA accessed via Wikipedia
Wikipedia | Public Domain
There is more error in the lower atmosphere because there are fewer measurements made
The temperature profile indicates a DECREASE in ion temperature in the upper atmosphere above 200km
Things are heating up …
Things are cooling down …
The answer is Radiative Cooling
Lastovicka et al. “Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere.” Sciencev.314 no.5803 (24 November 2006) pg. 1253 – 1254.
Photo taken by Shun – Rong Zhang | used with permission