Food System in Pakistan
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Food System in Pakistan. Nazim Ali. Nazim Ali. Global Change Impact Studies Centre Islamabad, Pakistan. Irrigated Landscape of District Gujrat. Wheat Production in Districts of Punjab Pakistan. Gujrat. (SDPI, 2004). Rice Production in Districts of Punjab Pakistan. Gujrat. (SDPI, 2004).

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Food System in Pakistan

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Food system in pakistan

Food System in Pakistan

Nazim Ali

Nazim Ali

Global Change Impact Studies Centre

Islamabad, Pakistan


Irrigated landscape of district gujrat

Irrigated Landscape of District Gujrat


Wheat production in districts of punjab pakistan

Wheat Production in Districts of Punjab Pakistan

Gujrat

(SDPI, 2004)


Rice production in districts of punjab pakistan

Rice Production in Districts of Punjab Pakistan

Gujrat

(SDPI, 2004)


Food system in pakistan

Food Production in Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Gujrat

(SDPI, 2004)


Food system in pakistan

PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF MAJOR FOOD ITEMS IN GUJRAT, PAKISTAN

(GoP, 2003 & SDPI, 2004)


Difference in release and procurement of wheat by food department

Difference in Release and Procurement of Wheat by Food Department

Gujrat

(GoP, 2004)


Approaches to understand agricultural marketing system

Approaches to understand Agricultural Marketing System

  • The Functional Approach

  • Institutional Approach

  • Commodity Approach

  • Behavioral System Approach


Food system in pakistan

Distribution Channels for Food Items in Pakistan-I

Wheat

Government

Selling agent

Broker

Buying agent

Processor

Retailer

consumer

Producer

Village Dealer

Vegetable

Producer

Commission agent

Phariawala

Retailer

Consumer

(Qamar M.D, 1998)


Distribution channels for food items in pakistan ii

Distribution Channels for Food Items in Pakistan-II

Rice

Private

Exporter

Outside

buyer

Village Dealer

Commission

Agent

Processor

Retailer

Consumer

Producer

Rice Export

corporation

PASSCO

Whole-seller

Fruits

Commission agent

Producer

Pre-harvest contractor

Phriawala

Retailer

Consumer


Distribution channels for food items in pakistan ii1

Distribution Channels for Food Items in Pakistan-II

Milk

Wholesaler/

commission agent

Producer

Milk carrier

Processor

Retailer

Consumer

Eggs

Producer/

Poultry farmers

collectors

wholesaler

Retailer

Consumer

Less Perishable  65%

Farmers’ Share of Consumers’ Expenditure

Perishable  35%


Typical problems of farmers in marketing in pakistan

Typical Problems of Farmers in Marketing in Pakistan

  • Production-orientation

  • Small marketable surplus

  • Inefficient produce preparation

  • Ineffective rural assembly markets

  • Credit availability

  • Lack of group action

  • Lack of vertical co-ordination of marketing channels.


Import of agricultural commodities

Import of Agricultural Commodities

(GoP, 2003)


Export of agricultural commodities

Export of Agricultural Commodities

(GoP, 2003)


Government interventions in price stability

Government Interventions in Price Stability

Government of Pakistan annually reviews and announces the support prices of important commodities

Crops

Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Sugarcane, Potato, Gram, Onion, Oilseeds

  • Objectives

    • To protect farmers against undue fall in prices

    • To promote farm investment on sustainable basis

    • To stabilize prices in off-season

(GOP, 2001)


Government interventions in price stability1

Government Interventions in Price Stability

  • Price Determinants

    • Cost of production

    • Import/export parity prices

    • Domestic and world demand/supply

    • Change in nominal and real price

    • Profitability in the use of inputs

    • Comparatives economics of competing crops

    • Production targets

    • Impact on other sectors of economy

Outcome

Crops covered under price program experience not only positive growth rates area and production but also in productivity

(GOP, 2001)


Per capita monthly consumption of major food items

PER CAPITA MONTHLY CONSUMPTION OF MAJOR FOOD ITEMS


Percentage change in per capita monthly consumption of major food items

Percentage Change in Per Capita Monthly Consumption of Major Food Items


Source of calories

Source of Calories

IFPRI, 1993


Factors affecting nutrition

Factors affecting Nutrition

  • Fluctuation in income do not translate in to fluctuations in calories intake in rural household.

  • Households cope with seasonal low and higher prices through savings and storage of grains

  • Calories-income elasticities in the sample household range from 0.12 to 0.39

  • Education of Women is foun to be key factor in achieving the better nutrition

  • Education of women is nearly three times effective than increasing income by 10 percent

  • Diarrhea and illness strongly determine the nutritional status of pre-schoolers

IFPRI, 1993


Preferences in food

Preferences in Food

Gender

In the village, female family members control sphere of food in their homes. 80% male members always get privilege in food distribution even if they were not at home their portion was kept aside before serving to other members of the family

Change in Preference

There has been a rapid exogenous decline over time in the share of gram. The demand for chicken was faster after 1982-83 than before it i.e. there was a structural change in consumer preferences.


Food processing

Food Processing

Why Processing

Post harvest losses of fruits and vegetables are an important factor of food deficit in the country. In general, post harvest losses of food crops are approximately 20% of the harvest and in the case of fruits and vegetables these losses are about 30% to 40%. Most of these losses take place at storage, transportation and processing. (Rana, 2000)

Food Processing

Food industry is the largest industry of Pakistan accounting for 27 percent of the total value-added production, and 16 percent of the total employment in the manufacturing sector.


Food system in pakistan

Food Toxins

Chemical Toxins

Biological Toxins

Intrinsic Chemicals

Extrinsic Chemicals

Agro-Chem.

Examples:

Fungi

Microbes

Bacteria

Viruses etc.

Plant Toxins:

Dietary fiber

Acids

Tannins etc.

Food additives

Food processing

Env.pollutants

Packing materials

Processing plants


Extent of adulteration in food items

Extent of Adulteration in Food Items


Pesticide residues in rice

Pesticide Residues in Rice


Food insecurity in districts of punjab

Food Insecurity in Districts of Punjab


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