Zoonotic diseases
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Zoonotic Diseases. Zoonosis: An infection or infectious disease transmissible under natural conditions from vertebrate animals to man. e.g., Rabies Anthrax Undulant fever/ brucellosis/ malta fever plague/ black death Tetanus ( locked jaw) Bovine tuberculosis etc. Rabies.

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Zoonotic diseases

Zoonotic Diseases

Zoonosis: An infection or infectious disease transmissible under natural conditions from vertebrate animals to man.




Undulant fever/ brucellosis/ malta fever

plague/ black death

Tetanus ( locked jaw)

Bovine tuberculosis etc.


  • Primarily zoonotic disease of warm blooded animals particularly carnivores e.g.,

    Dogs, foxes, cats, tigers, jackals, wolves.

  • Characterized by :

  • Classical hydrophobia

  • Long and highly variable incubation period

  • A short period of illness due to encephalitis ending in death.

  • Only communicable disease which is always fatal despite intensive care.

  • Source of infection: saliva of rabid animals

  • Reservoir of infection: in 3 epidemiological forms

  • Sylvatic (wild life) rabies – wild life cycle perpetuated by jackals, foxes, tigers etc; unidentified reservoir of infection.

  • Urban areas:

    From wild life to domestic dogs and maintained by them i.e., from dogs to dogs which leads to 99% of human cases.

    3.Bat rabies:

  • Vampire bat – importance

  • Provides constant source of infection for wild animals thus enabling virus to be present in nature.

  • Agent: Lyssa-virus type I

    family Rhabdoviridae

  • Mode of transmission:

  • Animal bites

  • Licks over abraded/ un-abraded skin

  • Aerosols (respiratory)

  • Person to person rare but on record

  • Incubation period:

  • 6-60 days but highly variable otherwise at site, severity, no dose.


  • Where: Approx. 40 countries including England, Japan, New Zealand are reported to be free of rabies because of strict importation of animals.

  • In Indo-Pak subcontinent, it is a major public health problem due to large number of stray dogs.

  • WHO(population at risk):

  • Dog-handlers

  • Lab-workers

  • Cave-explorers (bat rabies)

  • Veterainarians

  • Hunters

  • Wild-life officers etc.

  • When : endemic

  • P.O.C: In days 3-5 before the onset, rarely communicable from man to man.

  • Susceptibility/ Resitance: No natural immunity, prophylactic anti-rabies if started will prevent the disease.

  • Diagnosis:

  • History of exposure

  • Clinical signs/ symptoms

  • Microscopic examination

  • Characteristic eosinophilic inclusions(Negri –bodies)can be found inside nerve cells particularly in hippocampus and this is pathognomic sign in rabies.

Method of control
Method of Control

  • Dog detention for 10 days, if dies – Rabid.

  • Pets – preventive vaccination

  • Destruction of stray dogs

  • Pets – leash application

  • Public – health education

  • If animal clinically rabid, even though the P.M brain examination fails to reveal negri-bodies vice versa or animal disappears after biting

    un-identified, un-provoked attack, bitten by wild animals – control of infected - person, contract environment.


  • Post exposure prophylaxis:

  • Local treatment of wound

  • Immunization + ARS ( N.T.V



  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis:

    Population at risk should be vaccinated

  • Post exposure treatment of persons previously vaccinated.

Beware of friendly animal rabies and its treatment
Beware of friendly animal(rabies and its treatment)

  • Mode of infection:

  • Animal bite

  • Contamination of wound by virus laden saliva

  • Media of transmission:

  • Saliva

  • Urine

  • Tears

  • Serum

  • Other body fluids

  • Routes of transmission:

  • Licks on damaged skin

  • Bites or scratches

  • Inhalation

  • Crossint through intact mucous membranes

  • Contamination of wounds

  • Incubation period: Highly variable ranging from few days to several years (commonly 30-90 days) depends upon the site & intensity of bite. Long incubation period makes rabies a suitable disease for post exposure prophylactic immunization.

  • Concept of therapy:

  • Neutralization or removal of virus before its lodging on the nerve

  • Enhancement of body immune system for long lasting antibody response.

  • No lab tests (antibodies titre) are required before initiation of anti-rabies treatment.

Prevention treatment
Prevention & Treatment

  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PEP):

    3 standard IM doses of cell-cultured vaccine on day 0, 7, 21, 28. Persons who are in close contact or at high risk e.g., rabies research & diagnostic lab-workers, rabies biological product workers, spelunkers, veterinarians, animal control & wild life workers, animal hunters.

  • Post exposure management:

  • Local wound treatment

  • Vigorous cleansing of wound with soap water, detergent, ether, alcohol or aqueous sol. of Iodine.

  • Avoid wound suturing until and unless unevitable

  • Anti-tetanus injection

  • Analgesics & antibiotics symptomatically

  • Active immunization: Semple type( sheep brain suspension) – 2.5ml SC for cosecutive 14 days on anterior abdominal wall, followed by 2 boosters with 10 days interval & 3rd booster dose on 90th day

  • Intramuscular regimes: Essen schedule (5 doses)

    On day 0, 3, 7, 14 & 28 or 30 plus RIG (only once as soon as possible)

  • Reduced or Alternate regime: (4 doses) 2-1-1 on day 0, 7 & 21

  • 2 doses on day 0 plus RIG

  • 3rd on day 7

  • 4th (last) on day 21

  • Previously immunized persons: Having adequate rabies antibody titre , if exposed again, require 2 doses of ant-rabies vaccine on days 0 & 7.

Recommended standard protective rabies anitbody titre
Recommended Standard Protective Rabies anitbody titre

  • Recommended WHO rabies antibody titer is 0.5IU/ml,

    25-30 days after 5th or last injection

  • Rabies antibody titer has no significance before initiation of treatment.

  • If the titer is below the required level, booster dosage should be administered.

  • The protection afforded lasts for 6 months from the completion of anti-rabies treatment.

  • For long term protection, 1st booster after one year & subsequent booster after 5 years.

Method of administration
Method of Administration

  • Intramuscular injection into deltoid region or antero-lateral part of the thigh in small children.

  • Infiltrate half of the dosage of RIG in & around the wounds locally & remaining should be administered distant from the site of vaccine administration.

  • Never inject vaccine or sera into gluteal region because of dalayed absorption.

  • Use different syringes each time.


  • Human Rabies Immune-globulin (HRIG) 20IU / kg body weight.

  • Equine Rabies Immune-globulin (ERIG) 40IU / kg body weight.

  • Dilute 2-3 folds with sterile saline solution if the calculated dosage of RIG is insufficient to infiltrate all wounds.

  • Skin testing should be performed with ERIG and if found to be positive, treatment should proceed but precautionary measures should be at hand & observe the patient for at least one hour after injection. A negative skin test must never reassure the physician that no anaphylactic reaction will occur.

  • Exposure to hare and rodent seldom, if ever, requires specific anti-rabies treatment.

  • If an apparently healthy dog or cat in or from a low risk area is placed under observation, it may be justified delaying the specific treatment.

  • This observation period applies only to dogs and cats.

Anthrax specific anti-rabies treatment.

  • This is an acute bacterial infection of animal transmissible to man.


  • Organism: Bacillus-Anthracis

  • Source: tissue, skin & hides, hair & wool of animals dying of anthrax.

  • Reservoir: farm animals / infected cattle, sheep, goats & horses.

  • Occurrence: wide spread in agricultural areas

Mode of transmission
Mode of Transmission specific anti-rabies treatment.

According to Clinical form

1-Cutaneous anthrax or malignant pustule – contact of spores over skin of population at risk.

Sequence of events:

  • Small red indurate area

  • Later becomes edematous and soft

  • Lastly become hard, edematous & necrotic

  • Also characterized by lymphadenopathy, cellulitis & septicemia.

2- specific anti-rabies treatment.Inhalational anthrax or Wool sorter’s disease (W.S.D) or pulmonary anthrax

Occurs due to inhalation of infected material

3- Intestinal or ingestion material:

Ingestion of infected meat / other material.

Incubation period 1-7 days

  • Epidemiology specific anti-rabies treatment.

  • When : endemic

  • Where : agricultural / industrial area

  • Who : agriculturist, hide-workers, butchers, shepherds, wool factory workers, tanners in tannery factory, veterinarians, farm workers / farmers etc.

  • Diagnosis:

  • Shears from skin lesions (cutaneous anthrax)

  • Sputum examination – W.S.D

  • Blood by culture

Preventive control measures
Preventive/Control Measures specific anti-rabies treatment.

1-Animals: Sick must be isolated and treated. Carcases 6feet buried or burnt.

  • Precaution: Never opened or bled

    Vaccination with alum precipitated antigen of animals.


  • Control of effluents

  • Trade-waste

  • Dust control / ventilation

  • 3- At Community level: specific anti-rabies treatment.

  • Health education

  • Medical care of skin

    4- Material :


  • Hair – steaming

  • Wool – formaldehyde

  • Hides – bin chloride of formic acid /HCl

  • In epidemic – quarantine for 10 days.

Thank you specific anti-rabies treatment.