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POTENTIAL DISASTERS IN EDUCATION SECTOR AND THEIR RISK MANAGEMENT IN NEPAL April 16-19,2012 ,Singapore on Results Based Public Sector Excellence in Disaster Risk Management. JHAPPER SINGH VISHOKARMA MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, Government of Nepal. Types of Natural Disasters. Flood Landslide

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Jhapper singh vishokarma ministry of education government of nepal

POTENTIAL DISASTERS IN EDUCATION SECTOR AND THEIR RISK MANAGEMENT IN NEPALApril 16-19,2012 ,Singapore onResults Based Public Sector Excellence in Disaster Risk Management



Government of Nepal

Types of natural disasters
Types of Natural Disasters

  • Flood

  • Landslide

  • Earthquake

  • Draught

  • Litening etc.

  • Earthquake has been a burning issue in the country due to the following facts.(11th most risk zone in the world)

Earthquake Scenario (in Haitee): Similar to Kathmandu city in overall planning

Frequently occured earthquakes in nepal
Frequently Occured Earthquakes in Nepal

Source: Department of Mine and Geology, Govt. Of Nepal

School statistics and types

  • Total nos.: 33160 (including religious schools like Madarsha, Gurukul etc)

  • Out of the above

  • Types :

  • Community aided:Suppoted by govt. and no total responsbility of community.

  • Community managed:Suppoted by govt. and management by community

  • Community unaided:Partial or no support by govt.

  • Private/Institutional: Supported by parents and trustees

School b uilding typology in nepal
School building typology in Nepal

Problems of School Building Structure:-Use of weak construction materials-Heavy wall and roofs-Poor quality control of construction process-Untied gable wall-Lack of integrity between different structural components/elements -More number of stories than permissible for particular type of construction-Unsymmetrical plans and load path

Earthquake risk of nepalese schools1
Earthquake Risk of Nepalese Schools

about 75% (DG4 and DG5 in table) of the schools need intervention. Among them, 60% require retrofitting and approximately 15% require demolition and reconstruction)

Estimated Casualty at Schools during Scenario Earthquake:If the earthquake occurs at day time when the schools are open, there will be more than 110,000 deaths and about 300,000 serious to moderate injuries. As per the scenario developed based on the interpretation made from the study on various parts of Nepal, approximately 60% of the existing school buildings in Nepal need to be retrofitted to ensure safety for IX intensity level of shaking

Out of total 82,170 school buildings, approximately 61,628 buildings need immediate intervention and remaining 20,542 buildings which are found relatively good and recently constructed can be left for now.

Approximate total cost requiredinmaking all the schools earthquake safe is about US$ 1638 million and tentative time required is about 15 years. ( NSET,2011)

  • Approximately 5 years to make all the schools of the valley (Kathmandu)safer. The budget required is approximately 32 million US$. This cost is inclusive of civil works for retrofitting and reconstruction, detail assessment and design of 980 school buildings, supervision and training and survey of all the existing school buildings of the valley.

Government initiatives

National Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in 2009 with DPs. The consortium has brought together ADB,DFID,USAID,EC,UNOCHA,UNDP,UN ISDR,IFRC and the World Bank to work in this disaster risk management from last couples of years

Five flagship program for disaster risk management drm in 2009 a d

These are:

  • (i) Seismic safe schools and hospitals

  • (ii) Enhanced emergency response capacity

  • (iii) Flood management in the Koshi River Basin

  • (iv) Strengthening community based disaster risk management and

  • (v) Strengthening institutional capacity and disaster risk management.

Institutional Setup (In 2009 A.D.) For DRM in Nepal


Members:Other line mMinistries like MOLD,MOE,MOHP, and DPs

Institutiona Set up upto the local Level

Long term vision for nepal as a drr resilient country
Long Term Vision for Nepal as a DRR Resilient Country (In 2009 A.D.)

  • DRR laws and institution

  • Safer design of building

  • Land use plan

  • DRR in pubic work

  • DRR insurance scheme

  • Clean and green development

  • Early warning system

  • Risk Mapping

  • Preparedness and Mitigation

Overall policy status
Overall Policy Status (In 2009 A.D.)

  • 10th Five-Year Plan (2002-2007): Realization

  • Interim National Development Plan(2008-2010):Vision,Goal and Programes

  • National Strategy for Disaster Risk Mangement in Nepal,2009:Priority,strategy and structural provision

  • The interim National Development Plan(2011-2014): Vision,Goal and Programes

  • Commitment to Hygo Framework of action (HFA) (2005-2015): National and international commitment

Legal framework
Legal Framework (In 2009 A.D.)

  • The Constitution: Right to Environment

  • Natural Disaster Relief Act,1982

  • Nepal National Building Code,1994

  • Local Self Governance Act,1999

  • DRR Preparedness and planning directives,2010

  • DRR relief and Rescue standard,2008

Status of educational policies on drr
Status of educational policies on DRR (In 2009 A.D.)

  • Use of building codes: Environment protection prerequisite befor building construction

  • Development of environment friendly school environment (SSRP)

  • Development of public awarness through formal,non formal,and training programs on DRR (Interim Plan,2011-14)

  • Building nattional capacity on DRR (Interim plan,2011-14)

Drr issues and challenges
DRR Issues and Challenges (In 2009 A.D.)

  • Capacity Building

  • DRR plan and their sustainability

  • Networking, co-ordination

  • Monitoring and support

  • Preparedness and earlywarning system

  • Resource management

Moe drr initiatives
MOE DRR Initiatives (In 2009 A.D.)

1.Structural Initiatives: Establishment of focal desk in the ministry

  • Provision of focal points at DEO in 24 disaster prone districts

  • Building codes and retrofitting program to the schools

  • Construction of temporary learning centres

Moe drr initiatives1
MOE DRR Initiatives (In 2009 A.D.)

2.Curriculum Initiatives related to DRR (Non-structural):

  • Curricular mapping

  • Curricular integration

  • Development of text books and teacher guides and other learning materials

  • Development of DRR monitoring and assessment tools

Moe drr initiatives2
MOE DRR Initiatives (In 2009 A.D.)

3.Capacity related initiatives:

  • Oreintation package developed, orientation program to the school teachers,focal points,teachers and engineers

  • Development of contigencies plan on DRR and emergency response plan

Way forward
Way forward (In 2009 A.D.)

  • Building a culture of safety

  • Building a culture of resilient

  • Building a culture of partnership (PPP model)

  • Building a culture of accountability

  • Building a disaster related law and in action. (Goverment of Nepal has forwarded “Disaster Risk Mangament Act” to the Parliament for approval)

Damage in RC Building (In 2009 A.D.)

Beam-column joints may not be able to develop the strength of the connected members, and this can lead to sudden brittle failure of the joint

1989 earthquake in nepal
1989 Earthquake in Nepal (In 2009 A.D.)

1934 Earthquake in Nepal (In 2009 A.D.)

From ‘Images of Century’

Some Observations of 18 Sept (In 2009 A.D.).,2012 Earthquake

e"sDksf] sf/0f tyf c;/x? (In 2009 A.D.)

Scho o l buiding in recent earthquake
Scho (In 2009 A.D.)ol buiding in recent earthquake

e"sDksf] sf/0f tyf c;/x?

Which building is stronger for earthquake
Which (In 2009 A.D.)building is stronger for Earthquake?

e"sDksf] sf/0f tyf c;/x?

Before retrofitting
Before Retrofitting (In 2009 A.D.)

Earthquake drill
Earthquake Drill (In 2009 A.D.)

Stone in cement sand mortar building
Stone in Cement Sand Mortar Building (In 2009 A.D.)

Earthquake Resistant Building

Horizontal bands and vertical reinforcement

THANK YOU (In 2009 A.D.)