Controlling cascading failures with cooperative autonomous agents
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Controlling Cascading Failures with Cooperative Autonomous Agents. Paul Hines Sarosh Talukdar Dong Jia Huaiwei Liao. TPP Graduate Consortium, 27 July 2005 Work supported by ABB Corporate Research & the Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center. Photo: Marc O. Rieger

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Controlling Cascading Failures with Cooperative Autonomous Agents

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Controlling Cascading Failures with Cooperative Autonomous Agents

Paul Hines

Sarosh Talukdar

Dong Jia

Huaiwei Liao

TPP Graduate Consortium, 27 July 2005

Work supported by ABB Corporate Research & the Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

Photo: Marc O. Rieger

http://www.math.cmu.edu/~ana/Pictures/pic7.html


Some cascading failures

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Blackout size CDF

Source: Talukdar & NERC/DOE data

Hines, 18-Apr-05


What is a cascading failure?

Hidden

failure(s)

Disturbance

Violation(s)

Relay

operation(s)

Blackout

Network state

transitions

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Reducing cascading failure risk

  • Prevention method

    • Reduce the risk through conservative operations

      • “N-1” security

      • Imposes additional dispatch costs

  • Control method

    • Reduce the risk through improved control systems

      • Give the grid “good reflexes”

Hines, 18-Apr-05


One approach…

Hidden

failure(s)

Disturbance

Interrupt the CF

sequence here from a central location

Violation(s)

Relay

operation(s)

Blackout

Network state

transitions

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Another approach…

Hidden

failure(s)

Disturbance

Interrupt the CF

sequence here froma central location

Violation(s)

Relay

operation(s)

Blackout

Network state

transitions

Hines, 18-Apr-05


A new approach…

Hidden

failure(s)

Disturbance

Interrupt the CF

sequence here

using distributedautonomous agents

Violation(s)

Relay

operation(s)

Blackout

Network state

transitions

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Rationale for using distributed agents

  • Information

    • No need for global knowledge

    • Reduced “seams” problems

  • Speed

    • Computation & action co-located

  • Robustness

    • Distributed solutions tend to be more resistant to failures

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Problem statement

  • Improve the grid control system by

    • eliminating power system network violations at minimum social cost before a cascading failure results

    • using only distributed autonomous agents capable of shedding local load and generation.

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Solution method – Spatial decomposition

Autonomous

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Solution method – Incremental work

  • Allow each agent to work iteratively to remove the violations that it is aware of

  • Model Predictive Control:

    • Calculate a plan

    • implement a portion of the plan

    • update the plan

    • implement a portion of the plan

  • Allow for cooperation among agents

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Operators

u

x

Power Network

Bus 1

Measurement

hardware 1

Load/gen controller 1

Bus n

Load/gen controller n

Measurement

hardware n

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Operators

x

u

u1

Power Network

δ1

Measurement

hardware 1

Load/gen controller 1

agent 1

+

un

δn

Measurement

hardware n

Load/gen controller n

agent n

+

Communication

Network

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Solution method -- Cooperation

  • Definition:

    • The sharing of useful information.

  • Many methods exist, we use the following:

    • When agents calculate a solution:

      • Compare that solution with those neighbors who appear to require control actions

      • If a discrepancy exists:

        • exchange important measurements

        • recalculate

        • repeat no more than 3x

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Verification method

  • Perform repeated simulations using IEEE networks and random double contingencies

  • Adjust the amount of communication (the size of the internal neighborhood)

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Typical result

Branch outages 8,40rl=2, re=10

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Control error

Control error

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Control error vs. communication

Local neighborhood radius

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Conclusions

  • It is possible to control cascading failures using a flat network of distributed autonomous agents

  • Cooperation can vastly improve solution quality and/or reduce the amount of communication required

  • Improving the grid control system should allow operators to make better tradeoffs among conflicting objectives

    • (Dispatch costs, reliability, protection, network investment)

Hines, 18-Apr-05


Related policy issues

  • Where network authority is inherently distributed (>100 independent control areas in US eastern interconnect) a distributed solution has many advantages over centralized solutions.

  • While it is technically possible to control cascading failures, incentives for investment in such technologies are not always aligned with the costs.

Hines, 18-Apr-05


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