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This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:

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This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:. 3.c – Evaluate impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment 3.e – Evaluate models according to their adequacy in representing biological objects or events

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slide1

This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:

3.c – Evaluate impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment

3.e – Evaluate models according to their adequacy in representing biological objects or events

3.f – Research and describe the history of biology and contribution of scientists

5.a – Compare cells from different parts of the plant and animal

5.b – Identify cell differentiation in the development of organisms

10.a – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms

10.b – Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole

slide3

QUESTION: A vasectomy involves cutting pieces out of both vas deferens. Why does a vasectomy result in sterility?

Based on: Farish, D. Human Biology, Jones and Bartlett

slide5
QUESTION: LH-RH blockers are used to treat prostate cancer. How would this treatment control prostate cancer?
slide6

Blocking LH and RH prevents the testes from receiving the messages to make testosterone

Male Hormones

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide8

Advantage of PSA test

Stages of Prostate Cancer

PSA + needle biopsy detects cancer when only a few cells are present so treatments are more successful

Based on: Mayo Clinic Health Letter, April 1985

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May detect tiny slow growing prostate cancers that would not affect the health of men over 80 causing needless worry and treatment

Disadvantage of PSA test

overview of lesson
Overview of Lesson
  • Life cycle and development of humans
  • Miracle of Life video
  • Infertility and in vitro fertilization
  • Stem cells
slide12

Life Cycle of Humans

Fig. 5.15

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

human development involves
Human Development Involves
  • Addition of more cells through mitosis
  • Creation of adult cells with special functions through cell differentiation, creating about 210 different tissues in the body
mitosis of body cells
Mitosis of Body Cells
  • Prior to mitosis, replication of all 46 chromosomes forming 46 replicated chromosomes
    • Chromosome before replication
    • Replicated chromosome with two sister chromatids
  • Splitting of replicated chromosomes
  • Formation of two daughter cells with 46 chromosomes like the original cell
slide15

Mitosis of Body Cells

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide16

Stages of Mitosis

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide17

Human Development To Implantation

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide18

Cell Differentiation

  • DNA directs changes in cells from a general cell type (embryonic stem cells) to specialized cell types in the adult
  • Until recently, scientists thought that once cells became specialized in the adult, the DNA could not be reprogrammed back to its undifferentiated state

Based on: Scientific American, June 2004

example of adult cell with specialized function
Example of Adult Cell with Specialized Function

Nerve Cells

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

example of adult cell with specialized function20
Example of Adult Cell with Specialized Function

Muscle Cell

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

overview of lesson21
Overview of Lesson
  • Life cycle and development of humans
  • Miracle of Life video
  • Infertility and in vitro fertilization
  • Stem cells
slide22

Excerpt from

The Miracle of Life

Nova

overview of lesson23
Overview of Lesson
  • Life cycle and development of humans
  • Miracle of Life video
  • Infertility and in vitro fertilization
  • Stem cells
infertility in women
Infertility In Women
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Blocked fallopian tube
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Endometriosis
  • Uterine cysts
infertility in men
Infertility In Men
  • Low sperm count
  • Weak sperm
  • Impotence
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Medication side effects
in vitro fertilization test tube baby
In Vitro Fertilization (Test Tube Baby)
  • Hormones given to woman to stimulate eggs
  • Eggs harvested from ovary
  • Eggs fertilized with man’s sperm in glass container
  • Embryos allowed to develop for a few days
  • Embryos implanted in uterus and allowed to develop for 9 months
  • Extra embryos are frozen for later attempts if first attempt fails
overview of lesson28
Overview of Lesson
  • Life cycle and development of humans
  • Miracle of Life video
  • Infertility and in vitro fertilization
  • Stem cells
slide29

Dr. James Thomson

University of Wisconsin

  • in 1998, collected stem cells from surplus embryos created at fertility clinics
  • stopped stem cells from differentiating
  • kept them alive and reproducing indefinitely

Click on URL below to upload cover of TIME

TIME Magazine Cover: Scientist James Thomson - Aug. 20, 2001

slide30

Source of Stem Cells

Based on: Scientific American, June 2004

slide31

Potential of Stem Cell Research

Based on: Time, July 23, 2001

slide32

Against Funding Research

From: Time, July 23, 2001

For Funding Research

From: Time, July 23, 2001

slide33

Fate of Stem Cell Research Funding?

From: Time, July 23, 2001

  • 2000 President Clinton stated only embryos from fertility clinics and in excess could be used for research
  • 2001 President Bush banned federal funds for stem cell research except on stem cell lines already cultured in labs- 78 lines
  • 2003 European Parliament voted in Brussels to support funding of stem cell research
slide34

Fate of Original 78 Stem Cell Lines

  • 1 still under development
  • 1 donor consent withdrawn
  • 7 duplicates of other cultures
  • 16 died after being thawed
  • 31 are at overseas labs unavailable to U.S.
  • 21 viable stem cell lines remain in U.S.- aging, limited in genetic diversity, hinderance

Time 2006 http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1220538-2,00.html

slide35

Why a fight over federal funding?

  • Federal funding drives the speed of research progress
  • Without federal funding, the U.S. could slip behind in the biotechnology race
slide36

What are the sources?

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

  • Embryonic stem cells
  • Adult stem cells
  • Nuclear-transfer embryos
  • Umbilical-cord blood and placental cells
slide37

Next Lesson

DNA and the Human Genome Project

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