Large Force Standards and Dissemination by using Build-up System
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Large Force Standards and Dissemination by using Build-up System. Force and Torque Metrology for the Sustainable Development In South American Industries Dr. Dae-Im Kang, TC-3 Chairman. Contents. Introduction Deadweight and hydraulic force standard machines Build-up system

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Large force standards and dissemination by using build up system

Large Force Standards and Dissemination by using Build-up System

Force and Torque Metrology for the Sustainable Development

In South American Industries

Dr. Dae-Im Kang, TC-3 Chairman


Contents

Contents

  • Introduction

  • Deadweight and hydraulic force standard machines

  • Build-up system

  • Build-up force standard machine

  • Large force dissemination by using build-up system

  • Summary


Industries in south america

Agriculture

Forestry

Stockbreeding

Food industry

Textile industry

Iron industry

Automobile industry

Aircraft industry

Mining Industry

(Iron, Aluminum)

30 % of GDP

30 % of GDP

Industries in South America

  • General Index in Economic Conditions(2004)

  • Industrial Structure


Needs of large force in south america

Needs of Large Force in South America

  • High economic growth

  • 1st industries  2nd industries

  • Increase of high technology industries

  • Increase of heavy industries

  • Needs of accurate measurement

  • Needs of high capacity measurement


Deadweight force standard machines

Deadweight Force Standard Machines

KRISS 500 kN DFSM

PTB 2 MN DFSM

KRISS 100 kN DFSM


Deadweight force standards 1

Force measuring device under calibration

Loading frame

: Force

: mass of weight

: local gravitational acceleration

Deadweights

: density of air

: density of deadweight

Force by gravitational field (g)

Deadweight Force Standards (1)


Deadweight force standards 2

Deadweight Force Standards (2)

  • Most accurate force standard machine (2x10-5)

  • High cost and size for large force

  • Deadweight force standard machines in the world

    • 4 MN : NIST(USA)

    • 2 MN : PTB(Germany)

    • 1 MN : PTB(Germany), NPL(UK), IMGC(Italy),

      NIM(China) …

    • 500 kN : KRISS(Korea), NMIJ(Japan), NMIA(Australia),

      LNE(France), CEM(Spain) …


Hydraulic force standard machines

Hydraulic Force Standard Machines

PTB 16.5 MN HFSM

KRISS 2 MN HFSM


Hydraulic force standards 1

Measuring system

(pressure balance)

Force transducer

working system

Leakage Oil

Unsealed

Control system

m

Hydraulic Force Standards (1)


Hydraulic force standards 2

Hydraulic Force Standards (2)

  • Amplification of force (Q) by hydraulic system

    • Amplification factor : 200 ~ 1000

  • Relative Uncertainty : 1x10-4

  • Possibility of large force standards

  • Complex technology and still high cost

  • Hydraulic force standard machines in the world

    • 20 MN : NMIJ(Japan), NIM(China)

    • 16.5 MN : PTB(Germany)

    • 5 MN : PTB(Germany)

    • 2 MN : KRISS(Korea)


Economic way for large force

Economic Way for Large Force

Deadweight Force Standards

Hydraulic Force Standards

High cost and complex technique

High cost and size

Needs of more economic and effective way to generate large force


Build up force measuring system

F

Load button

Middle platen

Base platen

y

120o

FT B

FT C

x

120o

FT A

Build-up Force Measuring System

  • Three equal force transducers loaded in parallel  Force measurement capability increased to three times

  • Calibration of each force transducer in a deadweight or a hydraulic force machines  Evaluation of the build-up system

  • Used in combination the output have to be added or averaged

Force transducer


Build up force standards 1

Upper compression head

Force measuring device

to be calibrated

Ram

O-ring

Build-up system

Column

Cylinder

Oil

Pressure sensor

Motor

Pump

Build-up Force Standards (1)


Build up force standards 2

Build-up Force Standards (2)

  • Force comparator with the reference of build-up force measuring system

  • Easy way to reach large force

  • Relative uncertainty : 2x10-4

  • Build-up force standard machines in the world

    • 30 MN : NPL(UK)

    • 10 MN : KRISS(Korea)

    • 9 MN : LNE(France)


10 mn build up fsm in kriss

10 MN Build-up FSM in KRISS


Uncertainty of build up fsm

Uncertainty of Build-up FSM

  • Uncertainty of the build-up system (%)

    • Repeatability  0.00298

    • Resolution  0.00005

    • Interpolation  0.00007

    • Zero recovery  0.00088

    • Temperature variation  0.00012

    • Creep  0.00277

    • Long term sensitivity drift  0.00289

    • Reference force  0.005

    • Combines uncertainty : 0.00712

  • Uncertainty due to servo control (%)

    • Repeatability  0.00048

    • Deviation from target value  0.00025

    • Resolution  0.00004

    • Combined uncertainty : 0.00054

  • Expanded uncertainty of build-up FSM (%)

    • 0.01428  Declination of 0.02 %


  • Comparison with 2 mn hydraulic fsm

    Comparison with 2 MN Hydraulic FSM

    Relative deviation < 0.005 %


    Large force in industries korea

    Large Force in Industries, Korea

    • Increase of heavy industries  Needs of larger force

    • Needs for evaluation of mechanical components such as pot bearings  Testing machines with capacities greater than 10 MN

    • 15 testing machines in Korea

    30 MN Pot-bearing

    Testing Machine


    Large force dissemination using b u

    Large Force Dissemination using B.U.

    10 MN Build-up Force Standard Machine

    Calibration of 10 MN Force Transducer

    Establishment of 30 MN Build-up system

    Dissemination of large force up to 30 MN

    30 MN Build-up system


    Summary

    Summary

    • Build-up system

      • Parallel combination of force transducers

      • Capability of large force measurement

    • Build-up force standard machine

      • Force comparator with the reference force from build-up system

      • Easy and economic way to establish large force standards

    • Large force dissemination by using build-up system

      • Large force up to 3 times of the force standards


    Thank you for your attention

    Thank you for your attention!


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