Understanding Service Needs. Objectives. To examine the context of service delivery in local government To examine how we can understand service needs To look at techniques for understanding service costs and demand patterns
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Understanding Service Needs
Links to other procurement programmes
Contract Relationship Management
Identity Service Need
National Occupational Standards for Purchasing
Full attendance plus completion of assessment leads to ILM Level 3 Award in Service Improvement
Programme supported by Workbooks and elearning via iLearn
Dedicated Client service manager
Evolution? Revolution? Adaption?
“There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things”
“To improve is to change;
to be perfect is to change often”
“We trained hard, but it seemed that every time we were beginning to form up into teams we would be reorganised. I was to learn later in life that we tend to meet any new situation by reorganising, and a wonderful method it can be for creating the illusion of progress, while producing confusion, inefficiency and demoralisation.”
How can we make the service fit the demand?
Understanding patterns in demand
Thinking outside the square
Use to examine patterns in a a service or process and play back to the delivery team to identity frequency, scale, trends and ownership.
What does the service look like?
What happens first, what happens next?
From the providers view
From the Customers view
Get input from all and get people to draw simple flow charts
Compare them, discuss the differences
Decide what it needs to be against what it is now (Gap analysis)
Draw the improved process
What value is added at each stage of the process?
80% of queries handled at 1st point of contact20% escalated
Organisations may have several departments that have direct interaction with the customer.
These include :
Those on the front line - 1st level support
Those who try to fix the problem initially – 2nd level support
Those to whom the problem is sent if it can't be fixed- 3rd level support
Managers who may get involved if the customer is irate
Design for minimum customer handling – Why can’t the first point of contact fix the problem ?
Make sure group is representative
Convenient venue for the participants
Ideally around 10 – 12
Around 90 minutes long
You’ll need a facilitator and note taker
Open questions – one at a time to speak
Around 6 topics- let participants know what they are in advance
Send copies of notes and thanks afterwards
Make sure sample is representative
One side of A4 printed on yellow paper
Minimum questions to increase response, ideally 10
Measure degrees of satisfaction and dissatisfaction (disagree strongly/disagree/agree/agree strongly)
Use 4 tick boxes per question - simple language
Allow room for comment
Design for easy compilation of results
Suppose that a summer camp director had prepared the following questionnaire to use in interviewing the parents of prospective campers.
1. What is your income to the nearest £100 ?
People don’t usually know their income to the nearest 100 nor do they want to reveal their income that closely. Moreover, a researcher should never open a questionnaire with such a personal question.
2. Are you a strong or weak supporter of overnight summer camping for your children ?
What do strong and weak mean ?
3.Do your children behave themselves well at summer camp?
Yes ( )No ( )
About your organisation
What would you like your customers to say about your organisation and the way it deals with them ?
What would you like your customers to say about you and the way you deal with them ?
Acknowledges customers arriving at the bar within 30 seconds
Smiles and greets in a polite and friendly manner Serves customers in strict order of arrival
Works from left to right in each segment of the bar
Serves right drink with right change in 3-4 minutes
14% are dissatisfied with the service itself
Sources : British Quality Foundation
Institute for Customer Service
68% are dissatisfied with the indifferent attitude of
just one member of staff
14% are attracted by other suppliers (where they have a choice)
Every individual makes a significant impact customer experience & on the organisations service reputation
It is a myth that service quality is the major influence on customer satisfaction – it’s just one!
Why are people and organisations
often resistant to change?
into new behaviours
why things are different
Not until people get out of activity
Awareness that change is necessary
do they understand their lives better
How to deal with change
New behaviours, new approaches
Tendency here to stereotype
i.e. the way things should be done
Lot of energy
Begin to deal with new reality
Lot of anger and frustration
Beginning of transition
"Letting go of past" comfortable
attitudes and behaviours
Force Field Analysis - Lewin
The behaviourist approach - Skinner
Understanding how it feels
If you were a water molecule......
Where are we now?
Where do we need to be?
Using a practical model to drive change
External trends and drivers
Moving from the Present state to the Desired state through empowerment.
External & Internal Research and feedback
Present state – Desired future state
‘People do not resist their own ideas’
- Rowley & Rogers
Fast Download gets 50% speed up in adoption
(Prosci Consulting study of 1600 companies in 20 countries)
“Our ongoing mission, to
seek out new worlds and new civilisations.
To boldly go where no one
has gone before!”
Born out of manufacturing but applicable to service delivery, processes and systems
Coined in 90’s
Mostly derived from the Toyota production system
Focuses on eliminating the 7 wastes
Developed by Motorola in 1986 but drawing on many other established approaches from the previous 50 years
Can be applied to manufacturing or service industries
Designed to reduce error and waste, improve service and reduce cost
Involves all stakeholders
DMAIC – Improving existing processes or services
Develop problem description and project goals
Collect customer data
Review historical data
Map the current process
Set up a team and define its remit
Identify critical quality requirements
Evaluate current measurement system
Develop a better one if found wanting
Identify process steps that add value
Identify root cause for problem areas
Prioritize root causes
Map the future state
Develop potential solutions
Review best practice and adopt if sound
Set criteria for selecting solutions
Roll out solutions
Document the new process
Map the process
Set up monitoring & review
Identify lessons learned.
The 7 Wastes
My car will not start. (the problem)
Why? - The battery is dead. (first why)
Why? - The alternator is not functioning. (second why)
Why? - The alternator belt has broken. (third why)
Why? - The alternator belt was well beyond its useful service life and has never been replaced. (fourth why)
Why? - I have not been maintaining my car according to the recommended service schedule. (fifth why, root cause)
CTQ Tree – Critical to Quality
Maps cause and effect
No – George did not invent it!
It’s a quality process where you make your service less prone to random variability
How would you make sure your delivery drivers had equal skills and did not waste time on delivery runs?
What delivers the most cost effective solution?
Plus + Time costs?
Plus + Transaction costs between options?
Plus + Are we triaging service delivery at most cost effective level?
Plus + Are Social benefits relevant?
When faced with multiple improvement ideas a PICK chart may be used to determine the most useful. There are four categories on a 2*2 matrix; horizontal is scale of payoff (or benefits), vertical is ease of implementation.
It would be a BETTER solution with these elements
What does the ideal solution look like?
Compare and score
The best solution delivers all Essentials and scores highest on Desirables
The solution MUST contain these elements
Some tools for Service Design -Kepner Tregoe
Analyze to develop and design alternatives, create a high-level design and evaluate alternatives to select the best design