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Chapter 5. Integumentary System. Colored People by D.C. Talk. Pardon me, your epidermis is showing, sir I couldn’t help but note your shade of melanin I tip my hat to the colorful arrangement Cause I see the beauty in the tones of our skin We’ve gotta come together And thank the maker of us all.

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Integumentary System


Colored people by d c talk
Colored People by D.C. Talk

  • Pardon me, your epidermis is showing, sirI couldn’t help but note your shade of melaninI tip my hat to the colorful arrangementCause I see the beauty in the tones of our skinWe’ve gotta come togetherAnd thank the maker of us all


(chorus)We’re colored people, and we live in a tainted placeWe’re colored people, and they call us the human raceWe’ve got a history so full of mistakesAnd we are colored people who depend on a holy grace[1, 1, 1, 1... 2, 2, 2, 2... 3, 3, 3, 3... 4, 4, 4, 4]A piece of canvas is only the beginning forIt takes on character with every loving strokeThis thing of beauty is the passion of an artists heartBy gods design, we are a skin kaleidoscope



We’ve gotta come together,Aren’t we all human after all? (repeat chorus)Ignorance has wronged some racesAnd vengeance is the lordsIf we aspire to share this spaceRepentance is the cure[1, 1, 1, 1... 2, 2, 2, 2... 3, 3, 3, 3... 4, 4, 4, 4]Well, just a day in the shoes of a color blind manShould make it easy for you to seeThat these diverse tones do more than cover our bonesAs a part of our anatomy


(repeat chorus)We’re colored people, and they call us the human race[oh, colored people]We’re colored people, and we all gotta share this space[yeah we’ve got to come together somehow]We’re colored people, and we live in a tainted world[red and yellow, black and white]We’re colored people, every man, woman, boy, and girl[colored people, colored people, colored people, colored people, yeah]




Epidermal cells1
Epidermal Cells

  • Keratinocytes

    • Tightly packed; scale-like

    • Produced in the stratum basale

    • Work themselves upward to stratum corneum (top layer) and then they die and fall off

    • Produce keratin (protein)

  • Melanocytes

    • Spider shaped

    • Found in deepest layer (stratum basale)

    • Produce melanin (protein)


Epidermal cells cont
Epidermal Cells (cont.)

  • Langerhan’s cells

    • Produced in the bone marrow

    • Migrate to the stratum spinosum

    • Star-shaped

  • Merkel cells

    • Spiky hemisphere shape

    • Touch receptors (light touch; discrimination of shapes and textures)



The diversity of keratin
The Diversity of Keratin

http://agora.virtualmuseum.ca/media/EN/uploads/image/imagegbclawsx.jpg

http://www.anotherthink.com/my_graphics/desert-tortoise-shell.jpg

http://media.npr.org/blogs/bryantpark/jackpassion.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Capreolus_capreolus_cloven_hoof.jpg

http://en.wikivisual.com/images/4/48/A_single_white_feather_closeup.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Goat_with_spiral_horns.jpg



Dermis
Dermis

  • Function – bind body together; tough hide

  • Protein fibers:

    Collagen – most abundant protein fiber; provides strength and resilience to prevent jabs and scrapes from entering the dermis

    Elastin – allows stretch and recoil

  • Contains 7 structures

    • Blood vessels

    • Nerve endings

    • Hair follicles

    • Oil glands

    • Sweat glands

    • Lymphatic vessels

    • Meissner's corpuscles (touch receptors -detect pressure, vibrations)


2 dermal layers
2 Dermal Layers

Papillary Layer

  • Areolar Connective Tissue

  • Superficial, thin

  • Loosely woven mat of collagen and elastin fibers; abundant blood vessels

    - Dermal Ridges

    • Add friction/increase grip strength

    • Combine with sweat to form fingerprints


Dermal papillae and fingerprints
Dermal Papillae and Fingerprints

http://www.joblo.com/newsimages1/wantedjohn.jpg

http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/forensics/04-fingerprints/skin.gif



Dermis 2 nd layer
Dermis – 2nd Layer

  • Reticular Layer

    • Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

    • Deep and thick

    • Thick collagen fibers interlocking to resist tension in many directions.



Hypodermis
Hypodermis

  • Not a part of the skin

  • Location – deep to the dermis

  • Tissue type – adipose

  • Functions- store fat, anchors skin to muscles, insulation, prevents heat loss

  • Extra hypodermis storage areas

    • Males- belly (anterior abdomen-”beer belly”)

    • Females – thighs, breasts

    • Cellulite – fat pushes up on dermis causing bumps (“cottage cheese”) on outside of skin


Eccrine sweat glands
Eccrine sweat glands

  • Location - found everywhere but nipples and external genitalia

    • Most abundant: palms of hands, soles of feet, forehead

    • Ducts terminate at skin pores

    • Function: Regulate body temperature through evaporation (perspiration)

    • Sweat is 99% water; acidic (pH 4-6); NaCl; urea



Apocrine sweat glands
Apocrine sweat glands

  • Location – axilla and anogenital areas (armpits and groin)

  • Duct opens into hair follicles

  • Sweat contains lipids and proteins

  • Sweat + bacteria = body odor

  • Begin functioning at puberty

  • Increased activity: pain, stress, sexual arousal


Sebaceous oil glands
Sebaceous Oil Glands

  • Location – everywhere except palms/soles

  • Most abundant- face, neck, upper chest

  • Secrete sebum (oil) into hair follicle

    or occasionally a skin pore

  • Holicrine glands – don’t secrete; burst

  • Become more active – puberty

  • Positive – keep skin/hair soft, lubricated

  • Negative – inflammation (acne) and (boils)




Skin cancer1
Skin Cancer

  • Basal Cell Carcinoma

    • least malignant; most common

    • slow growth; shiny, dome-shaped

    • occur most on face

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    • Scaley, red, small, round

    • Rapid growth; can metastisize

    • Head, scalp, ears lower lip


Melanoma
Melanoma

  • Highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy

  • Mostly from moles

  • A – asymmetric cancer of melanocytes

  • B – border irregular

  • C – color – contains several colors

  • D – diameter larger than 6 mm



Burns1
Burns

  • Damage to the skin from intense heat, electricity, radiation or chemicals

  • First Degree: damage to epidermis only

  • Second Degree: damage to epidermis and upper region of dermis; blisters

  • Third Degree: full thickness burns

  • Dehydration, shock; treated with I.V.

  • Infection – main cause of death


Epidermal wound healing
Epidermal wound healing

These notes will be covered on the National Geographic assignment.


Deep wound healing
Deep wound healing

These notes will be covered in the National Geographic

assignment.


Skin related diagnostic terms
Skin-related Diagnostic Terms

  • Cyanotic – skin appears blue b/c of lack of oxygen in blood; heart failure and severe respiratory disorders

  • Hematomas – Bruise; blood clotted beneath skin

  • Jaundice – yellowish cast; accumulation of bile in blood; indicative of liver disorders

    - In dark-skinned individuals, examine mucous membranes and nail beds.


Vitiligo skin pigmentation disorder loss of melanocytes and uneven dispersal of melanin
Vitiligo- Skin Pigmentation Disorder – loss of melanocytes and uneven dispersal of melanin



BOTOX- melaninremoves frown lines, furrowed brows; the bacterium, Clostridium botulinum inhibits muscles from contracting


Functions of the integumentary system
Functions of the Integumentary System melanin

  • Protection

    • Chemical – acidic; slows down bacterial growth melanin shields UV rays

    • Physical – continuous barrier; prevents water loss

    • Biological – fights viruses and bacteria that have entered body through the skin


Functions cont
Functions cont. melanin

  • Body Temperature Regulation

    • Perspiration (sweat) removes body heat – prevents overheating

  • Cutaneous Sensation

    • Touch, pressure, pain

  • Metabolic Functions

    • Produces vitamin D and proteins (keratin, melanin, collagen, elastin)


Functions cont1
Functions cont. melanin

  • Blood reservoir

    • Holds about 5% of body’s total blood volume

  • Excretion

    • Through sweat, rids body of nitrogen wastes: ammonia, urea, and uric acid


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