Chromium and Fluoride Analysis in Water. Travis Rutherford Mitchell Small. Fluoridation.
Chromium and Fluoride Analysis in Water
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Fluoride is a chemical that is used to fortify teeth. In order for your teeth to become stronger, they must first come in contact with fluoride and also some must be ingested. Some governments have decided to take the health of the population in their own hands and have added fluoride to the populations drinking water. It is not done in Fredericton but it is done elsewhere. If it is done there are strict regulations set, because exposure to fluoride may also cause fluoridation. The effects of this, however, are far from life threatening and may cause spots and discoloration of the teeth (Gavin, 2008).
The acceptable limits of fluoride in water in 2002 in the United States is between 0.7 and 1.2 ppm (Gavin, 2008). In Canada the optimal levels of fluoride is between 0.8 and 1.0 mg/L. The absolute maximum is 1.5 mg/L (Health Canada, 2008)
Benefits of Fluoride
As we all know fluoride is found in toothpaste. Why might this be. Well as stated before the fluoride helps toughen the teeth and make them more resistant to decay. But how does it do this? It does this by combining with the existing structure of the tooth in order to strengthen it.
Various governments have been adding fluoride to water for over 60 years, and they have seen an amazing improvement of the general public. It has been suggested that 20-40 percent of tooth decay in the United-States was prevented simply by adding fluoride to drinking water.
Hexavalent Chromium (CrVI) is often found in paints and primers, dyes and inks, It is used as an anticorrosive agent. It is used in many surface coatings, chromic acid electroplated onto metals for an attractive appearance. (Often seen on chrome bumpers) It can also be create when welding stainless steal, although it is not present ant the beginning, the intense heat involved with welding is enough to convert some of the chromium metals to hexavalent chromium. (United States Department of Labour, 2010)
Dangers of Hexavalent Chromium
Hexavalent Chromium is extremely toxic, and those who inhale this substance is at an increased risk of lung cancer, although there are other consequences, due to the extreme half life in the lungs, lung cancer is the principle danger. (United States Department of Labour, 2006)
Hexavalent Chromium Has a significant half life in different parts of the human body. In Urine it is 15-41 hours, muscle tissue will retain Chromium for about two weeks. The estimated half life for whole body chromium retention is 22 days. In the liver and spleen tissue is 12 months and in the lungs it is 616 days. (United States Department of Labour, 2006)
United States Department of Labour, . (2010, January 14). Safety and health topics hexavalent chromium. Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hexavalentchromium/index.html
United States Department of Labour, . (2006, February 28). Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium; final rule. Retrieved from http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_id=18599&p_table=federal_register