Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies
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Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies. We will be focusing on two models of memory. Memory. Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

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Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

We will be focusing on two models of memory.


Memory

Memory

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


The multi store model of memory atkinson and shiffrin 1968

The Multi-Store Model of MemoryAtkinson and Shiffrin 1968

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


The multi store model of memory atkinson and shiffrin 19681

The Multi-Store Model of MemoryAtkinson and Shiffrin 1968

Three step process….

  • Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system.

  • Storage: The retention of encoded material over time.

  • Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


The multi store model of memory atkinson and shiffrin 19682

The Multi-Store Model of MemoryAtkinson and Shiffrin 1968

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Sensory memory

Sensory Memory

  • A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information.

  • Sperling’s research on Iconic Memory

  • Echoic Memory

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Short term memory

Short Term Memory

  • The stuff we encode from the sensory goes to STM.

  • Events are encoded visually, acoustically or semantically.

  • Holds about 7 (plus or minus 2) items for about 6-15 seconds.

  • We recall digits better than letters.

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies1

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

Memory

  • Multi-Store Model

    • Sensory

    • Short Term (STM)

    • Long Term (LTM)


Have you ever encoded a penny

Have you ever encoded a penny?


The ways we can encode information from stm to ltm

The Ways we can encode information from STM to LTM…

  • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images.

  • Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.

  • Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

What are the most efficient ways to encode information into LTM.


Techniques to encode information from stm to ltm

Techniques to encode information from STM to LTM….

  • Rehearsal

  • It involves repeating information over and over in order to get the information processed and stored as a memory

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

What are the most efficient ways to encode information into LTM.


Chunking

Chunking

  • Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.

1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1

XIBMSATMTVPHDX

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

What are the most efficient ways to encode information into LTM.


Mnemonic devices

Mnemonic Devices

  • is any learning technique that aids information retention.

  • "Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."

  • Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally

  • Will A Jolly Man Make A Jolly Visitor?

  • May I have a large container of coffee?

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

What are the most efficient ways to encode information into LTM.


A trip down metacognitive lane

A trip down Metacognitive Lane

Utilizing the information on encoding that we learned today, how could you make yourself:

  • A better student in Social Studies

  • A better friend


Long term memory

Long Term Memory

  • Unlimited storehouse of information.

  • Explicit (declarative) memories

  • Implicit (non-declarative) memories

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Explicit memories

Explicit Memories

  • Episodic Memories

  • Semantic Memories

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Implicit memories

Implicit Memories

  • Procedural Memories

  • Conditioned Memories

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


The multi store model of memory atkinson and shiffrin 19683

The Multi-Store Model of MemoryAtkinson and Shiffrin 1968

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Forgetting

Forgetting

Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number.

  • Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.

  • Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name.


Spacing effect

Spacing Effect

  • DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve


Take out a piece of paper and name all the presidents

Take out a piece of paper and name all the Presidents…


Encoding information

Encoding Information

  • Primacy Effect

  • Recency Effect

  • Serial Positioning Effect


Glanzer and cunitz 1966

Glanzer and Cunitz 1966

Aim:

  • To investigate recency effect in free recall.

    Procedure:

  • This was a laboratory experiment where participants first heard a list of items and them immediately had to recall them in any order.


Glanzer and cunitz 19661

Glanzer and Cunitz 1966

Results:

  • Participants recalled words from the beginning of the list and end of the list best.

  • The results showed a U shaped curve.


Glanzer and cunitz 19662

Glanzer and Cunitz 1966

  • If the participants were given a filler task (something to do) right after the last words, the primacy effect disappeared but the recency effect remained.

    Why?

  • Maybe the words are still active in STM.


Glanzer and cunitz 19663

Glanzer and Cunitz 1966

Evaluation

  • The study supports the idea of multiple stores (STM and LTM).

  • Controlled lab experiment.

  • Ecological validity issues?


Case study example of multi store model

Case study example of Multi-Store Model

  • Amnesia is caused by damage to hippocampus and related networks.

  • MRI scans showed that H.M. had severe damage to hippocampus which is critical to store info in LTM.

  • H.M. could store implicit memories but not explicit memories.

  • This shows that the memory system contains different systems.


Multi store model strengths and weaknesses

Multi-Store ModelStrengths and Weaknesses

Strengths

Weaknesses

Very simplistic

  • It was the first modern model of memory.

  • The fact that we have multiple stores is supported by research.

  • Most of the newer models have been based of this one.


Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies2

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Model 2 the working model of memory baddeley and hitch 1974

Model 2: The Working Model of MemoryBaddeley and Hitch 1974

  • Main argument was that Short Term Memory in the Multi-Store Model was much too simple (too passive).

  • They replaced STM with something they called Working Memory.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 1974

The Working Model of MemoryBaddeley and Hitch 1974

  • Working Memory does not just sit there and take information.

  • Instead of all information going into one single store, there are different systems for different types of information.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19741

The Working Model of MemoryBaddeley and Hitch 1974

  • The Working Memory consisted of three main sections with a fourth added in 2000 by Baddeley.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19742

The Working Model of MemoryBaddeley and Hitch 1974

The Central Executive

  • Drives the whole system (e.g. the boss of working memory) and allocates data to the subsystems .

  • Like the Fat Controller from Thomas the Tank Engine.

  • Sends info to the other “slave” systems.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19743

The Working Model of MemoryBaddeley and Hitch 1974

The Phonological Loop

  • Handles verbal and auditory information.

  • Divided into two parts

    • Articulatory control process (inner voice) Linked to speech production. Used to rehearse and store verbal information from the phonological store.

    • Phonological Store (inner ear) Linked to speech perception Holds information in speech-based form (i.e. spoken words) for 1-2 seconds.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19744

The Working Model of MemoryBaddeley and Hitch 1974

The Visuo-Spatial Sketch Pad

  • (inner eye)

  • This is believed to hold visual information.

  • The eyes are used to store and manipulate visual and spatial information such as remembering colors or shapes.

  • Also used for navigation.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19745

The Working Model of MemoryBaddeley and Hitch 1974


Evidence that the wmm is the real deal

Evidence that the WMM is the real deal.

  • The WMM helps explain real life problems. Like why we cannot process written and verbal information at the same time.

  • PET scans show evidence of separate components of STM as different areas are activated during different tasks.

  • KF Case Study


A study that proved the working model of memory quinn and mcconnel 1996

A study that proved the Working Model of MemoryQuinn and McConnel (1996)

  • They asked participants to memorize a list of words by using either imagery or rehearsal.

  • The task was performed on its own or with a concurrent visual noise (changing patterns of dots) or a concurrent verbal noise (speech in a foreign language).


Quinn and mcconnel 1996

Quinn and McConnel (1996)

  • The results showed that learning by imagery was not affected by a concurrent verbal task

  • but was disturbed by a concurrent visual task.

  • The opposite was found in the rehearsal condition.


Quinn and mcconnel 19961

Quinn and McConnel (1996)

  • This indicates that imagery processing uses the Visuo-Spatial Sketch Pad whereas verbal processing uses the Phonological Loop.

  • If the two tasks used the same component, performance deteriorated.

  • The study this lends support to different “slave” systems of memory.


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