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Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies. We will be focusing on two models of memory. Memory. Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

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Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

We will be focusing on two models of memory.


Memory

Memory with reference to research studies.

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


The multi store model of memory atkinson and shiffrin 1968
The Multi-Store Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


The multi store model of memory atkinson and shiffrin 19681
The Multi-Store Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968

Three step process….

  • Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system.

  • Storage: The retention of encoded material over time.

  • Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


The multi store model of memory atkinson and shiffrin 19682
The Multi-Store Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Sensory memory
Sensory Memory with reference to research studies.

  • A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information.

  • Sperling’s research on Iconic Memory

  • Echoic Memory

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Short term memory
Short Term Memory with reference to research studies.

  • The stuff we encode from the sensory goes to STM.

  • Events are encoded visually, acoustically or semantically.

  • Holds about 7 (plus or minus 2) items for about 6-15 seconds.

  • We recall digits better than letters.

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies1
Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

Memory

  • Multi-Store Model

    • Sensory

    • Short Term (STM)

    • Long Term (LTM)


Have you ever encoded a penny
Have you ever encoded a penny? with reference to research studies.


The ways we can encode information from stm to ltm
The Ways we can encode information from STM to LTM… with reference to research studies.

  • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images.

  • Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.

  • Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

What are the most efficient ways to encode information into LTM.


Techniques to encode information from stm to ltm
Techniques to encode information from STM to LTM…. with reference to research studies.

  • Rehearsal

  • It involves repeating information over and over in order to get the information processed and stored as a memory

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

What are the most efficient ways to encode information into LTM.


Chunking
Chunking with reference to research studies.

  • Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.

1-4-9-2-1-7-7-6-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1

XIBMSATMTVPHDX

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

What are the most efficient ways to encode information into LTM.


Mnemonic devices
Mnemonic Devices with reference to research studies.

  • is any learning technique that aids information retention.

  • "Mary Very Easily Makes Jam Saturday Unless No Plums."

  • Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally

  • Will A Jolly Man Make A Jolly Visitor?

  • May I have a large container of coffee?

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

What are the most efficient ways to encode information into LTM.


A trip down metacognitive lane
A trip down Metacognitive Lane with reference to research studies.

Utilizing the information on encoding that we learned today, how could you make yourself:

  • A better student in Social Studies

  • A better friend


Long term memory
Long Term Memory with reference to research studies.

  • Unlimited storehouse of information.

  • Explicit (declarative) memories

  • Implicit (non-declarative) memories

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Explicit memories
Explicit Memories with reference to research studies.

  • Episodic Memories

  • Semantic Memories

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Implicit memories
Implicit Memories with reference to research studies.

  • Procedural Memories

  • Conditioned Memories

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


The multi store model of memory atkinson and shiffrin 19683
The Multi-Store Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.


Forgetting
Forgetting with reference to research studies.

Getting a new bus number and forgetting old bus number.

  • Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.

  • Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.

Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies.

Calling your new girlfriend by old girlfriends name.


Spacing effect
Spacing Effect with reference to research studies.

  • DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve



Encoding information
Encoding Information with reference to research studies.

  • Primacy Effect

  • Recency Effect

  • Serial Positioning Effect


Glanzer and cunitz 1966
Glanzer with reference to research studies. and Cunitz 1966

Aim:

  • To investigate recency effect in free recall.

    Procedure:

  • This was a laboratory experiment where participants first heard a list of items and them immediately had to recall them in any order.


Glanzer and cunitz 19661
Glanzer with reference to research studies. and Cunitz 1966

Results:

  • Participants recalled words from the beginning of the list and end of the list best.

  • The results showed a U shaped curve.


Glanzer and cunitz 19662
Glanzer with reference to research studies. and Cunitz 1966

  • If the participants were given a filler task (something to do) right after the last words, the primacy effect disappeared but the recency effect remained.

    Why?

  • Maybe the words are still active in STM.


Glanzer and cunitz 19663
Glanzer with reference to research studies. and Cunitz 1966

Evaluation

  • The study supports the idea of multiple stores (STM and LTM).

  • Controlled lab experiment.

  • Ecological validity issues?


Case study example of multi store model
Case study example of Multi-Store Model with reference to research studies.

  • Amnesia is caused by damage to hippocampus and related networks.

  • MRI scans showed that H.M. had severe damage to hippocampus which is critical to store info in LTM.

  • H.M. could store implicit memories but not explicit memories.

  • This shows that the memory system contains different systems.


Multi store model strengths and weaknesses
Multi-Store Model with reference to research studies.Strengths and Weaknesses

Strengths

Weaknesses

Very simplistic

  • It was the first modern model of memory.

  • The fact that we have multiple stores is supported by research.

  • Most of the newer models have been based of this one.



Model 2 the working model of memory baddeley and hitch 1974
Model 2: with reference to research studies.The Working Model of MemoryBaddeley and Hitch 1974

  • Main argument was that Short Term Memory in the Multi-Store Model was much too simple (too passive).

  • They replaced STM with something they called Working Memory.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 1974
The Working Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Baddeley and Hitch 1974

  • Working Memory does not just sit there and take information.

  • Instead of all information going into one single store, there are different systems for different types of information.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19741
The Working Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Baddeley and Hitch 1974

  • The Working Memory consisted of three main sections with a fourth added in 2000 by Baddeley.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19742
The Working Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Baddeley and Hitch 1974

The Central Executive

  • Drives the whole system (e.g. the boss of working memory) and allocates data to the subsystems .

  • Like the Fat Controller from Thomas the Tank Engine.

  • Sends info to the other “slave” systems.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19743
The Working Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Baddeley and Hitch 1974

The Phonological Loop

  • Handles verbal and auditory information.

  • Divided into two parts

    • Articulatory control process (inner voice) Linked to speech production. Used to rehearse and store verbal information from the phonological store.

    • Phonological Store (inner ear) Linked to speech perception Holds information in speech-based form (i.e. spoken words) for 1-2 seconds.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19744
The Working Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Baddeley and Hitch 1974

The Visuo-Spatial Sketch Pad

  • (inner eye)

  • This is believed to hold visual information.

  • The eyes are used to store and manipulate visual and spatial information such as remembering colors or shapes.

  • Also used for navigation.


The working model of memory baddeley and hitch 19745
The Working Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Baddeley and Hitch 1974


Evidence that the wmm is the real deal
Evidence that the WMM is the real deal. with reference to research studies.

  • The WMM helps explain real life problems. Like why we cannot process written and verbal information at the same time.

  • PET scans show evidence of separate components of STM as different areas are activated during different tasks.

  • KF Case Study


A study that proved the working model of memory quinn and mcconnel 1996
A study that proved the Working Model of Memory with reference to research studies.Quinn and McConnel (1996)

  • They asked participants to memorize a list of words by using either imagery or rehearsal.

  • The task was performed on its own or with a concurrent visual noise (changing patterns of dots) or a concurrent verbal noise (speech in a foreign language).


Quinn and mcconnel 1996
Quinn and with reference to research studies.McConnel (1996)

  • The results showed that learning by imagery was not affected by a concurrent verbal task

  • but was disturbed by a concurrent visual task.

  • The opposite was found in the rehearsal condition.


Quinn and mcconnel 19961
Quinn and with reference to research studies.McConnel (1996)

  • This indicates that imagery processing uses the Visuo-Spatial Sketch Pad whereas verbal processing uses the Phonological Loop.

  • If the two tasks used the same component, performance deteriorated.

  • The study this lends support to different “slave” systems of memory.


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