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End Term Appraisal of DPIP. Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad. Structure of the presentation Context Approach Emerging broad picture Emerging detailed picture - Groups and their federations performance - Women Empowerment

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end term appraisal of dpip

End Term Appraisal of DPIP

Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Hyderabad

slide2
Structure of the presentation
  • Context
  • Approach
  • Emerging broad picture
  • Emerging detailed picture

- Groups and their federations performance

- Women Empowerment

- Access to credit markets

- Assets and Livelihoods

- Well-being

- Vulnerability & food security

slide3
Contribution of DPIP

- Groups and their federations performance

- Women Empowerment

- Access to credit markets

- Assets and Livelihoods

- Well-being

- Vulnerability & food security

slide4
Context of The Study
  • DPIP completed its cycle in its implementation.
  • Need to take stock of the contribution of the Project
  • Time to learn lessons for strengthening and replication
approach
Approach
  • Impact evaluation based on three rounds of surveys- Baseline, FUS-I and FUS-II
  • FUS-I developed many parameters of impact evaluation independent of the BLS
  • FUS-I also used recall method to construct BL data in some of the impact areas
  • Cross section and panel survey methods used in FUS-I
  • All the FUS I sample HHs revisited in FUS II
  • Comparison of FUS-II with FUS-I made to assess the contribution of the programme
contd
Contd..
  • Phase I and II mandals considered for the impact assessment
  • Programme became universal, Program and Control samples strictly not comparable
  • Followed participants and non-participants of the programme
  • Used different methods in the Mid-term Appraisal to assess the contribution
contd1
Contd..
  • A 3 stage random sampling design
  • Srikakulam, Anantapur and Adilabad districts
  • 33 Program Mandals and 12 Control Mandals
  • 204 Program Villages and 60 Control Villages
  • Covered 2640 households, 1590 SHGs, 264 VOs and 48 MSs and 3 ZSs
  • Attrition rate 6%
impact areas
Impact areas
  • Women empowerment
  • Access to credit
  • Assets and livelihoods
  • Household well-being
  • Vulnerability and food security
slide9

Emerging Broad View

  • Need for handholding of SHGs and their federations for some more time to come for making them self-reliant
  • Empowerment gone up significantly at the household and community level.
  • Linkages between empowered women and local governance institutions to be strengthened
  • Quantity and quality of credit has gone up.
emerging broad view
Emerging Broad View
  • Women’s share in savings and borrowing capacity gone up
  • Formal credit institution have become inclusive of poor
  • Risks managed well by restoring to savings and borrowings
  • Well being improved
  • Need to strengthen public institutions of health and education
  • Need to think of cluster based approach for strengthening the livelihoods of the poor
shgs and their federations

SHGS and Their Federations

Structure of Presentation

Status and trends of groups with regard to

-Good Internal practices

-Ultimate indicators of Group Health

SHG performance vis-à-vis Best Practice

Status and Trends of Federations with regard to

-Good Internal practices

status and trends of groups good internal practices
Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices
  • Frequency of meetings
    • Best practice(BP) : Weekly meetings
    • 60% SHGs hold monthly meetings; 84 -ATP, 78-SKL, 65 – ADB
    • 16% SHGs hold weekly meetings;16-ATP, 6-SKL, 2-ADB
    • More SHGs had weekly meetings in 2003-04
    • Decline thereafter : Shift to monthly meetings
    • Average No of meetings/annum :
      • 13.65 in 2003-04
      • 10.46 in 2005-06
status and trends of groups good internal practices1
Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices
  • Attendance at Meetings
    • BP : 90-100%
    • Performance : 90% in2003-04

81% in2005-06

    • Anantapur at 94 in 2003-04

87 in 2005-06

    • Srikakulam at 89 in 2003-04

85 in 2005-06

    • Adilabad at 85 in 2003-04

67 in 2005-06

status and trends of groups good internal practices2
Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices
  • Meeting Time and Location
    • BP : Fixed meeting day, time and

place as per SHG norms

    • 82% SHGs meet in a fixed place

85 in SKL and ATP, 75 in ADB

    • 76% SHGs have fixed date and time;

94-ATP, 67-SKL, 63-ADB

status and trends of groups good internal practices3
Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices
  • Frequency of Savings
    • BP : Weekly Savings
    • 87% SHGs save monthly
    • 98-SKL, 90-ADB, 73- ATP
    • 12% SHGs save weekly
    • 26-ATP, 7-ADB, 1-SKL
  • Average savings (Rs. monthly):
    • Now 31
    • Before 34
      • ATP- 33/31
      • SKL-32/49
      • ADB-27/27
status and trends of groups good internal practices4
Status and Trends of Groups Good internal Practices
  • Financial Transactions
    • BP : Take place in meetings
    • 59% SHGs pay savings in meetings;
      • 88-ATP, 47-ADB, 37-SKL
    • Loan repayment in meetings:
      • 50% always practice
      • 82-ATP, 33-ADB, 29-SKL
status and trends of groups good internal practices5
Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices
  • Leadership Rotation
  • BP : Leadership Rotation once in 2 years

Members preside weekly meetings on

rotation

  • Few SHGs closer to BP
    • 73% SHGs have no rotation;
    • 77-SKL,76-ATP, 65-ADB
    • 10% had no change since inception;
    • 24-ADB, 5-SKL, 1- ATP
    • 8% change all leaders in 1 or 2 years
status and trends of groups good internal practices6
Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices
  • Independent Book Keeper
    • BP: No SHG leader as Bookkeeper

literate member/villager as Bker

    • 91%SHGs have Bkers compared

to 62% in 2003

  • Type of BKer
    • 29% : literate villager
    • 20% : CC/CA as BKer
    • 23% : VBK/MBK as BKer
    • 14% : SHG leaders as BKer
status and trends of groups good internal practices7
Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices
  • Average No of SHGs/BKer
    • BP : One BKer/4-5 SHGs
    • Current : 6.3 SHGs/BKer
    • 5-ATP, 6-SKL, 9-ADB
    • Last : 6.9 SHGs
    • 4-ATP, 5-SKL, 9-ADB
status and trends of groups good internal practices8
Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices
  • Trained Bookkeeper
    • BP : All SHG BKers receive Initial

and Refresher training

    • 57 % have trained BKer
    • 62-ATP, 54-SKL, 54-ADB
  • Bookkeeping
    • BP : No writing records outside the meetings
    • 27% of SHG BKers write records outside the meetings-Moving towards Good Practice overtime
    • 50-SKL, 18-ADB, 12-ATP
status and trends of groups good internal practices9
Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices
  • Cash Handling by BKer
    • BP : No cash handling by Bkers
    • Bker not to influence group decisions
    • 50% BKers handle cash
    • 57-SKL, 50-ATP,36-ADB
    • –practice on increase
    • only 13% BKers influence SHG decisions
    • 22-SKL, 12-ADB, 7-ATP
    • –practice on increase in SKL and ADB
status and trends of groups good internal practices10
Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices
  • Transparent Financial Transactions
  • Bank Transaction System
    • BP : members visit on rotation for remittances

leaders visit for withdrawal

    • 70% SHGs have leaders remitting in banks
    • 88-ADB, 38-ATP, 90-SKL
    • Anantapur doing well : 60% SHGs have
    • members visiting on rotation- 10 in ADB, 9-SKL
    • 94% SHGs : Leaders withdraw cash from banks
    • 93-ADB, 95-ATP, 93-SKL
status and trends of groups good internal practices11
Status and Trends of GroupsGood Internal Practices
  • SHG-Bank Linkage : distribution among Members
    • BP : Loans sanctioned based on members needs/MCP
    • 82% of SHGs received at least one bank loan
    • 89-SKL, 87-ATP, 72-ADB
    • 71% SHGs distribute equally among members
    • 93- SKL, 77-ADB, 46-ATP
    • 8% based on MCP, 23-ATP, 1-SKL
    • % based on need;30-ATP, 17-ADB, 5-SKL

Internal Lending

    • BP : Rotation to all members based on need
    • 78% SHGs sanction internal loans based on need
    • 83-ATP, 76-ADB, 74-SKL
status and trends of groups good internal practices12
Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices
  • Bookkeeping
    • 90% SHGs keep Books
    • 91-ATP, 89-ADB, 88-SKL
    • 64% SHGs have meeting details available in minutes
    • 79-ATP, 78-SKL 24-ADB
status and trends of groups good internal practices13
Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices
  • External Monitoring
  • Audit
    • 26% SHGs accounts audited
    • 33-SKL,30-ATP, 15-ADB
  • Critical rating done
    • 14% SHGs; 25-ATP, 16-SKL
  • Maasa Nivedika
    • BP : All SHGs prepare maasa nivedikas and submit to VO
    • 1%SHGs prepare maasa nivedika
    • 21-ATP, 12-SKL,
status and trends of groups good internal practices14
Status and Trends of Groups Good Internal Practices
  • Sanctions
    • BP: SHGs fix norms for fines for not attending meetings and not repaying loans
    • 22% SHGs have sanctions for not attending meetings; 41-ATP, 12-SKL, 11-ADB
    • 17% SHGs have sanctions for non-payment of thrift; 33-ATP, 8-SKL, 8-ADB
    • 19% SHGs have sanctions for non payment of loans; 34-ATP, 14-ADB, 6-SKL
status and trends of groups ultimate indicators of group health
Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health
  • Member Attrition
    • 33% SHGs report attrition during last 3 years
    • 41-ATP, 31-SKL,26-ADB
    • Average % of attrition is low : 6%; 7-ATP, 5-SKL, 4-ADB

Three major reasons for leaving

    • no longer interested : 23% ; 31-ATP, 19-ADB, 16-SKL
    • moved out of village : 24% ; 25-ATP, 23-ADB, 22-SKL
    • suspended for non payment of/not attending:11%
    • 12- ATP, 12- SKL, 9-ADB

Distribution of members leaving SHG/poverty status

    • poor : 30% ; 40-SKL, 39-ATP, 4-ADB,
    • pop : 31% ; 44-SKL, 28-ATP, 24-ADB
    • not poor : 24% ; 69-ADB, 8-ATP, 7-SKL
status and trends of groups ultimate indicators of group health1
Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health
  • Financial Sustainability
    • Average income and expenditure of SHGs
      • ALL Dists : Income Rs. 1878
      • Expenditure Rs. 351

Anantapur :

        • Income Rs. 5024
        • Expenditures Rs. 621
      • Srikakulam:
        • Income Rs. 177
        • Expenditure Rs. 264
      • Adilabad:
        • Income: Rs. 139
        • Expenditure Rs. 140
  • SHGs with surplus income

13% SHGs report surplus income; Uniform across all districts

  • Proportion of SHG loans/source : More from external sources
    • Banks : 58%, 70-SKL, 56-ADB, 48-ATP
    • CIF : 28% 37-ATP, 31-ADB, 15-SKL
    • DRDA : 4%
status and trends of groups ultimate indicators of group health2
Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health
  • Repayments (internal)

Overall repayment rate 71% for 2004

48% for 2005

18% for 2006

- 83-ATP , 71-ADB, 60-SKL - 2004

- 54-ATP , 44-SKL, 38- ADB – 2005

- 27-SKL, 13-ADB, 11-ATP - 2006

status and trends of groups ultimate indicators of group health3
Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health
  • Group Sustainability

Conflict Resolution

80-90% SHGs report no conflicts

Major areas of conflict by those reported include: attendance at meetings,

savings; loan sanction; loan repayment (this reported as frequently while all others were rare)

status and trends of groups ultimate indicators of group health4
Status and Trends of Groups Ultimate Indicators of Group Health
  • Participation of eligible members in programs

Most groups report low participation in programs

RCL : Discontinued; 61% never participated

Marketing : 20% participated in either input or output related activities

Livestock Insurance : 7%

Death and Disability Insurance : 20%

Employment programme : 9%

Land programmes : 3% either got title (0.24%) or got

land restituted (1.3%)

Adult Education programme : 12%

status and trends of vos good internal practices
Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices
  • Few Basic characteristics

Average age of VOs : 3 yrs

Average no of SHGs/VO : 14(BP 15-20/VO)

VOs with own building : 62%

VOs registered : 90%

VOs filing IT returns : 4%

VOs having MCPs : 64%

VOs adopting a model village : 19%

status and trends of vos good internal practices1
Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices
  • Conduct of Meetings

General Body : BP: Once in 3 months

41% VOs conduct once/year, 67-SKL, 63-ADb, 14-ATP

22% conduct once in 3 months, 42-ATP, 7-SKL

EC meetings :BP : Monthly

58% VOs hold monthly EC meetings

42-ADB, 59-ATP, 71-SKL

RGB : 52% VOs hold monthly RGB meetings

58-ADB, 46-ATP, 57-SKL

38% VOs have no RGB, 38-ADB, 48-ATP, 21-SKL

status and trends of vos good internal practices2
Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices
  • Attendance at Meetings

BP: Attendance is always above 90%

Average attendance

EC meetings : 85%

- ADB-92, ATP-86, SKL-80

status and trends of vos good internal practices3
Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices
  • Constitution of VO

BP : 2 members/SHG attend EC meeting

71% VOs have 2members/SHG

8.72% VOs have no norm

  • VO Agenda

BP: Structured agenda fixed by VOGB

CA/VBK not influence

Practice indicates

55.5% VOs : all EC members

29.82% : VO office bearers

14.68% : CA/VBK

status and trends of vos good internal practices4
Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices
  • VOs keeping Books

Cash Book : 74%

4% increase since 2004

Loans and CIF receipt register : 64% 4% increase since 2004

Loans and CIF issue register : 64%; 3% increase since 2004

Loans and CIF repayment register: 55%; 4% increase

status and trends of vos good internal practices5
Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices
  • Bookkeeper

BP :VOs appoint CA/VBK to write records

97% VOs have Bkers in 2006 consistent increase from 22% in 2002

status and trends of vos good internal practices6
Status and Trends of VOs Good Internal Practices
  • External Monitoring

Maasa Nivedika

50% VOs prepare maasa nivedika

VO Audit: BP: All VOs complete annual audit, place report in VO meeting for approval

76% have audit done

69% VOs audited in 2006

VO rating : 17% VOs rated

introduction
Introduction
  • Social empowerment should precede economic empowerment to handle poverty
  • Social and economic empowerment should ultimately result in reconfiguration of relations in both household and community
  • Women’s empowerment is measured in terms of their bargaining power
participation in household decision making
Participation in Household Decision Making
  • Collective decisions has gone up significantly
  • Improvement in women’s access to financial resources, transformed men to share space in decision-making of savings and credit
contd2
Contd…
  • Involvement of men in the preparation of micro- credit plan might have expanded the collective space
  • Collective spaces of decision-making proliferated into domains of economic and non-economic issues

- Birth control

- Decisions on food

contd3
Contd..
  • Men take care of children and cook food when women are busy
  • Stereotypes of gender division of labour seems to disappear slowly
autonomy of women
Autonomy of Women
  • Proportion of women obtaining permission to go for work increased significantly between MTA and now
  • Women share their info on all movements with their men
  • Contrary to situation in MTA
contd4
Contd..

Why this u-turn behavior?

contd5
Contd..
  • Men realized that they got every benefit from the groups
  • No point of women investing time and money without flow of benefits from groups.
contd6
Contd…
  • Increased use of coercive controls to negotiate with women - no positive improvements in attitudes of men in sharing spaces with women
  • Women afraid to disagree with their men and domestic violence increased
  • More time to bring attitudinal changes in men
  • Need for sensitizing men
impact of empowerment livelihoods budget allocations
Impact of Empowerment(Livelihoods,Budget Allocations)
  • Share of budget allocated for clothing for women, fuel, lighting increased - indicates decline of drudgery of women
  • Budget share of food increased having favourable impact on women.
  • Gender sensitivities crept into budget allocations
contd7
Contd…
  • Time women spend on family chores increased
  • May be women are spending quality time with their children, in contrast to the situation in MTA
empowerment at community level
Empowerment at Community Level
  • Emphasis is laid on access to information and social capital in DPIP
  • Poor have no access to information for various programmes and institutions and are deprived of benefits from these initiatives
  • Improving density and quality of social relations among women enhances social capabilities of women
  • Thus women are more empowered to participation in decision-making for community
increased participation in other groups increased social capital
Increased Participation in Other Groups/Increased Social Capital

Social Networks

  • Social networks of women widened
  • Higher participation in social networks by women who are members of DPIP SHGs compared to those who are not
  • Social networks thus configured sustained
contd8
Contd…

Trust

  • Improvement in level of trust of women in government officials, members of different castes and outsiders
  • Developed trust in agents of social change
contd9
Contd..

Leadership

  • Stabilisation in leadership status
contd10
Contd…

Increased Knowledge about Political Participation

  • Information on when and where grama sabhas of grama panchayats are held increased
  • Increase higher in Anantapur and Adilabad
  • Same is case with POP and poor
  • Programme made a significant contribution in raising awareness among women
contd11
Contd…
  • Noticeable improvement on Reservation for women in panchayats
  • Negligible percentage are able to state exact provision made for women in grama panchayats
  • Understanding inadequate on position of women in grass roots political institution
contd12
Contd…
  • Information on reservation for SCs and STs increased among members of the DPIP SHGs compared to non-members and across districts and groups
contd13
Contd…
  • Greater empowerment of women within HH enables them to participate more effectively in community level decisions and
  • Provides an opportunity to close gap with economically and socially more advanced groups.
contd14
Contd….
  • Perceptible increase in number of persons who felt that participating in grass roots institutions was fruitful
increased initiation of collective action
Increased Initiation of Collective Action
  • Participation of women in collective actions increased in regard to infrastructure problems like electricity supply and irrigation
  • Gap between male and female declined - with respect to the participation and rising issues
savings
Savings
  • Proportion of women saving in formal sector significantly increased
  • 9% of women respondents of DPIP SHGs deposited savings against 7% of those who are non members
  • Across districts, 7 to 8%; 7% to 5% in POP and poor
  • Members of DPIP-SHGs internalized practice of savings
contd15
Contd…
  • Proportion of participants holding cash increased significantly compared to MTA.
  • Proportion of women investing in jewellery significantly declined in DPIP area - a good sign
financial assets of women
Financial Assets of Women
  • Financial assets (amount saved in jewellery cash in hand of all women in a household increased (except in Adilabad) over MTA
  • Women of DPIP-SHGs are almost near to their counter parts of non DPIP SHGs, in possessing financial assets.
  • Participation in DPIP SHGs might have given them greater scope to accumulate financial assets almost equal to the non-participants
contd16
Contd…
  • Participants of programme could enhance their assets (40% over MTA) while members of non DPIP SHGs could not register any improvement.
  • Financial assets of women in Srikakulam were higher (Rs 23796) followed by Adilabad (Rs 19336) and Anantapur (Rs 11254).
  • Increase in financial assets: poor-18% POP- 4%
share of women in total hh financial assets
Share of Women in total HH Financial Assets
  • Share of financial assets of women increased from 42% in MTA to 48% -indicating direct positive impact of project
  • Women in DPIP SHGs are better placed in holding financial assets in the households compared to members of non DPIP SHGs whose share has declined from 48% in MTA to 38% now
contd17
Contd…
  • In Anantapur, though overall worth of financial assets held is comparatively lower, there is a considerable increase between MTA (32%) and now (39%) indicating impact of project
  • Women in POP households could not improve their share in total household financial assets over MTA ( hovered around 47 per cent) while the poor improved their assets marginally (44% now, over 43% in MTA).
individual credit market access
Individual Credit Market Access
  • Significant increase in proportion of women accessing credit from formal institutions over MTA
  • Accessing credit from SHGs significantly higher in DPIP area
  • Borrowing capacity of women now increased by over 150 percent
  • Women in programme area can now borrow over Rs. 24,300, an increase of 182 percent over MTA.
contd18
Contd…
  • Women in Srikakulam could borrow to extent of Rs. 21763 now, increase of 81% over MTA, followed by Anantapur and Adilabad
  • Can borrow a little over 50% of loans from formal institutions in programme area as against 32% in control
  • Women in Anantapur are regular in savings with SHGs
  • In Adilabad, capacity of women to borrow from formal institutions is much higher compared to other districts
contd19
Contd…
  • Poor and POP accessing more from formal sector followed by SHGs
  • Women in the DPIP area applied for Rs. 2079 from a formal financial institution, - significantly higher compared to MTA.
  • Srikakulam tops with an average amount of Rs. 4810 followed by Rs. 1186 in Anantapur and Rs. 938 in Adilabad
  • Average loan amount expected is around Rs. 8,400 from informal sector in DPIP area, significantly higher over MTA
contd20
Contd…
  • Average interest rates on loans -formal institutions around 17% -informal 34 to 36 percent
  • Project facilitated to access increased quality of credit - lower interest rates and time to receive loan
  • Interest rates in informal sector too high in Adilabad around 53% as against 28% and 24% in Anantapur and Srikakulam
contd21
Contd…
  • Only 46% of applicants in Anantapur could receive amount of loan applied for from formal financial institutions indicating the necessity of more inputs on bank linkages
shelter
Shelter
  • Owning residential houses is significantly higher (94%) among participants compared to non-participants (83%)

ATP-93, SKL-87, ADB-87

POP-88, Poor-90, NSP-89, NP-87

contd22
Contd..
  • Improvement over MTA - in the type of houses of participants
  • Significant increase in the investment on housing among participants
  • Srikakulam has highest percent (59%) of houses with access to electricity now followed by Anantapur (55%) and Adilabad (40%)
contd23
Contd…
  • Proportion of households with no drainage now stands at 11% as against 48% in MTA
  • Decline in pop- 36%, poor – 40%, NSP – 37%
education
Education
  • Percentage of girls continuing school education increased from 8% in MTA to 11% now in Srikakulam, Anantapur-from 9% in MTA to 10% now
  • Similar increase across POP, poor and non-poor categories
contd24
Contd…
  • Enrollment of girls in school - increase is more in programme area
  • Among the districts it is high in Anantapur and Adilabad
  • Increase in in POP, poor and not so poor categories
contd25
Contd…
  • Percentage of interruptions to schooling declined from 2.9% in MTA to 1.3% now
  • Decline of interruptions is high in Ananthapur
contd26
Contd…
  • Percentage of dropouts declined in POP (16% vs 17% in MTA)
  • Poor - now is 14%, (15% in MTA)
  • In non-poor category, percentage decline is high, from 16% in MTA to 13% now
health
Health
  • % of households received preventive treatment increased - 44% to 51%
  • In Adilabad -69%, Anantapur -55%
  • % increased in POP when compared to MTA
contd27
Contd…
  • % of HHs seeking treatment from public hospitals increased over MTA
  • More increase in private hospitals
contd28
Contd…
  • 7.9% seeking from public hospitals, 38% opted for private hospitals now.
  • In control area, 8.8% in public hospitals 44% in the private hospitals
  • Children receiving measle vaccination increased - 78% to 90%
contd29
Contd…
  • Pre-natal care increased 76% to 89% now
  • In control area decreased by 10%
  • Knowledge on how to treat diarrhea increased
  • Perceptions on health of their children increased compared to others
food insecurity
Food Insecurity
  • Food insecurity is significantly lower compared to MTA. This happened both in programme and control areas
  • Food insecurity reported 6%- in Anantapur, 4% - Srikakulam and 2% - Adilabad.
  • Slightly lower among POP and poor (hovering around 4%) compared to NSP and NP (around 5%)
  • Reason - support extended through RCL, FSL and providing easy access to credit
contd30
Contd…
  • Fewer days went without food to all members.
  • Significant decline - 2 days now to 7 days in MTA
  • In SKL – 2 days – a decline of 14 days
  • Accessed more RCL/RPS and PDS stock helped
contd31
Contd…
  • Programme participants lifted PDS quantities more regularly - 88% against 75% of non-participant households
  • Substantial improvement in Srikakulam and Adilabad in accessing of PDS
contd32
Contd..
  • Increase in budget share of PDS items in POP
  • Participants of programme able to purchase more of entitlement of rations in PDS shops - 175.18 kgs/annum of rice, as against 158 kgs in control area
  • More so among women in newly formed DPIP groups
risks and shocks encountered
Risks and Shocks Encountered
  • Drought, floods and pests are most serious shocks experienced by HHs
  • Significant reduction in reporting nature related problems, health and other shocks
  • May be increased levels of awareness on heath care among the participants
  • Drought continued to be a major problem in Anantapur
  • Flood and pests dominates in Adilabad district, though declined (27% vs. 34%)
impact of the risks shocks
Impact of the Risks/Shocks
  • On an average, a household suffered losses up to Rs 9385 in DPIP area irrespective of type of risk/shocks encountered as against Rs 36326 during 2003 (MTA)
  • Per household losses are relatively lower in programme area (Rs 8865) compared to control areas (Rs 11192)
  • People in Anantapur suffered more losses (Rs 10079), Adilabad – Rs 8815 and Srikakulam - Rs 7784
contd33
Contd…
  • Highest losses are due to drought in Anantapur (Rs 7671) and in Srikakulam (Rs3722) - Due to flood and pests in Adilabad (Rs 4623).
  • POP suffered more losses (Rs 9618) as against Rs 8146 in the case of poor
  • Drought is the reason for higher losses both in the POP and poor.
contd34
Contd…
  • Lack of employment opportunities resulting in loss of wage income during drought period is probably the main reason for loss of income.
  • Total loss associated with health problems is relatively lower among participants compared to non members (Rs 941 vs. Rs. 1281).
  • Participants are well aware of preventive health care and accessing public health services when required.
coping mechanisms
Coping Mechanisms
  • 31% resorted to borrowing as a first measure; while it was 28% in control area
  • Higher percentage of participants in programme area (31%) borrowed money to tide over crisis compared to non-participants (29%)
  • Indicates borrowing capacity of DPIP members is much more than of non-participants.
  • Credit-worthiness is slightly higher for members of newly formed DPIP groups compared to DWCRA converted groups
contd35
Contd…
  • Higher percentage of people in Anantapur (37%) are opting for borrowing followed by Srikakulam (26%) and Adilabad (25%)
  • Borrowing continued to dominate in Anantapur (41 to 37%) - Resorting to good coping mechanism compared to other districts
contd36
Contd…
  • Poor (31%) and POP rely heavily on borrowings, which is a direct contribution of the project
  • Use of savings - 9% to cope with shocks
  • Compared to MTA, a 50% decline in use of savings in control - less than 20% in programme, indicating the impact of the project
contd37
Contd…
  • Substantial increase in newly formed groups – 9% to 17%, indicating shift towards good mechanisms
  • Increase is also noticed in Anantapur (from 7% to 9% now) - Anantapur performing better
contd38
Contd….
  • Adilabad - seeking more wage employment to deal with risks increased (9% to 14%)
  • Shows the positive response at times of distress-may be accessing more NREGP - could be indirect contribution of the project
  • Anantapur resorting to intra-household mechanisms is higher (11%) compared to other districts
slide100

Having assigned land is relatively high in the programme area compared to control area - increased over MTA, indicating the indirect/direct efforts of the project.

Purchase of land is high for programme participants

Similar increase is noticed in the districts, economic groups

Benefiting land from SC Corporation has increased over MTA – True in districts of Srikakulam and Anantapur - indicating the indirect/ direct impact of the programme.

slide101
Benefiting land from IKP significantly different from MTA in the DPIP area. Though the proportion is meagre there is an increase in the beneficiaries of land across the districts and economic groups
  • Resolution of land disputes through revenue officials has increased - a clear indication of the increased levels of awareness to resolve through the government institutions
  • Other disputes on land, i.e. boundary disputes, trespassers disputes etc. has considerably declined - leading to the impression that the confidence levels of POP and poor increased to solve the disputes in case any arises.
slide102
Termination of tenancy by the land owners observed among 48 per cent
  • Termination of tenancy by the tenant is much widely reported.
  • Termination of lease was observed due to lack of irrigation facilities
  • Nearly one-third cited non-remunerative process as the main reason for terminating the tenancy
  • Moderate increase in such terminations – 4 to 5 per cent
  • Across the districts 38 percent in Adilabad, 29 percent in Srikakulam and 20 percent in Anantapur have reported such terminations.
  • Similar trend observed across the economic groups
  • It clearly indicates the crisis in agriculture, more so in tenancy farming
  • Increased terminations is particularly high in the project areas, which may also be construed as that the people in the project are opting out of agriculture to better remunerative activities due to increased credit worthiness
slide103
Around 4 per cent failed to obtain the land on lease - Adilabad (7 per cent), Anantapur (4 per cent) Srikakulam (2 per cent).
  • Around 3 per cent could not succeed in their efforts to lease out their lands
  • On the whole, no improvement observed in the proportion of households making productive investment.
  • 7 per cent who are members of the newly formed groups of DPIP and DWCRA have made productive investments, which is slightly higher than the other category of households.
slide104
Value of milch animals is relatively higher (Rs 4500 to 6000) compared to control (Rs 4222) and non-participants (Rs 3411) indicating the direct impact of the programme in acquiring the milch animals.
  • Value of milch animals is highest in Adilabad (Rs 6511), - Anantapur (Rs 3815) and Srikakulam (Rs 2611).
  • POP possess worth Rs 4684 followed by poor Rs 3680.
  • Possessing of draught animals is predominant in the DPIP areas (Rs 15221) compared to RPRP areas (Rs 8410).
  • Members of SHG-DPIP possess draught animals worth Rs 15886
  • It was highest in Adilabad (Rs 27981) - Anantapur (Rs 10543)
  • It is understandable that tribes in Adilabad culturally feel proud of having plough bullocks and accordingly majority have been benefited under the project.
  • Adilabad - both milch and draught animals are high and the absolute value increased now compared to MTA
  • POP possesses high value of draught animals - indicates the direct impact of the project.
slide105
Small stock which include sheep and goat predominant with those of the participants of the DPIP programme (ranging between Rs 3706 to Rs 5806)
  • Non-participants possess low (Rs 2357).
  • Anantapur possess high number of small stock (Rs 5885) followed by Adilabad (Rs 2851) and Srikakulam (Rs 1713)
  • Though the value of stock decreased over MTA, majority of those possessing are of programme participants indicating the direct impact.
  • On the whole there is a shift in the composition of livestock - substantial increase in the draught animals followed by milch animals
  • Drastic reduction in the small remnants with a meagre increase (in terms of value) in the milch animals
  • POP and poor possess the live stocks almost on par with NSP and NP - indicating the extent to which the programme has given the benefits to these sections.
slide106
Acquisition of the livestock is mainly through own efforts indicating the enhancement of credit worthiness of the project participants.
  • Value of the implements owned by the participants also reveals a modest level, when compared to the non-participants.
  • Members of the project are having a clear cut advantage in irrigation assets over the non-participants.
  • Across the districts Anantapur recorded the highest (Rs 22865), followed by Adilabad (Rs 16825) and Srikakulam (Rs 7333)
  • The assets which are the tools for the well-being, are by and large being possessed (in equal or near to equal share) between the participants and non-participants showing the direct impact of the project
  • Differences in the assets and differences in the access to credit markets are expected to have an impact on the household livelihood choices.
  • The changes in the attitudes to livelihoods among the participants in the project and non-participants clearly indicate the preference to half-an-acre of rainfed land even in the name of women, over two local buffaloes.
slide107
50 per cent of the programme participants opted for half-an acre over milch animals.
  • 67 per cent in Srikakulam desired to have half-an-acre of rainfed land over milch animals followed by Adilabad (61%) and Anantapur (28%)
  • Anantapur, being a severe drought prone area, peoples choice is for milch animals (47%) rather than land.
  • They visualised income from milch animals is better than income from land.
  • 50% of the PoP and Poor preferred land.
  • If the offer is one acre of rainfed land around 38 per cent only from Anantapur would like to posses.
  • If the choice is between half-an-acre of irrigated land and milch animals either buffaloes or cows, over 70 per cent of the programme participants preferred land indicating the income from half-an-acre irrigated land is more than from two milch animals - it is true even in the case of Anantapur.
  • No difference in the choice of land with patta in women’s name or with patta in male’s name - choice changes with the quality of land offered and also extent of the land
slide108
Changes in the share of households time spent on different activities reveal women spend more on family chores including fetching water fuel collection. Child care, cooking, washing etc., (around 270 days)
  • Next is on agriculture casual labour (216 days to 116 days), self- employed in crop production (82 to 116 days), self-employed business (75-82 days) ands as a non-agricultural casual labour (76-83 days).
  • By and large, households time spent on the above activities is higher for participants in the programme compared to non-participants.
  • In other words, programme participants are employed more number of days than others.
  • Compared to MTA, the time spent as agricultural casual labour has marginally increased for the participants.
  • Across the districts and different economic groups, similar results prevail.
  • Marginal decline on the days worked in migration for the programme participant though the number of days in migration is relatively low.
slide109
Of the total working days of the household (1748 days now to 1639 days in MTA), share of women constitute more than 50 per cent i.e., 905 days of 1748 days
  • Similar observation hold good for districts and economic groups
  • Of the working days by the females, 17 per cent constitutes for agriculture casual labour, 2 per cent in non-agriculture, 2 per cent in salaried work, 5 per cent in business, 6 per cent in crop production, 1 per cent in family chores, around 61 per cent in others which include unemployed days.
  • Thus, casual labour in agriculture is the major activity followed by self employed in agriculture, and business in the programme area.
  • For male members- casual work in the agriculture constitute 12 per cent - 5 per cent as non-agriculture, 6 per cent each as salaried work, business, and crop production, 49 pr cent as other works in the programme area
  • Females work more as agriculture casual labour, while men participate more as non-agricultural labour and business.
impact on poverty
Impact on Poverty
  • Measures of poverty used

- Percentage of very poor

- Moderately poor

- All poor

  • Very poor are those living below 75% of poverty –these are hardcore and likely to be chronic poor
  • Moderately poor are those between 75% of poverty line and poverty line
srikakulam very poor
Srikakulam (Very Poor)
  • Between FUSI and FUSII

-9.3to7.2% in the district - by 2.2 percentage points (ppt)

- 11.3 to 7.8% among the participants in the program- by 3.5 ppt and

- 6.8 to 6.3% among the non-participants of the program- by 0.6 ppt

  • The trends indicate faster reduction of hardcore poor among the participants
srikakulam moderately poor
Srikakulam (Moderately Poor)

Between FUSI and FUSII

  • 15.4 to 10.9% in the district – by 4.6 ppt
  • 16.5 to 10.4 in among the participants it declined from - by 6 ppt and
  • 14.0 to 11.4 among the non participants it declined from - by 2.6 ppt
  • The estimates indicate that the program had an effect on the moderate poverty .
srikakulam overall poverty
Srikakulam –Overall Poverty
  • 24.8% to 18% - by 6.8ppt.
  • 27.8 to18.3% and among the participants the program – 9.6ppt
  • 20.8 to 17.7% among the non participants 3.1
  • Without the program the poverty would have declined to 24% instead of 18%
  • The additional gains in the poverty reduction seem to be 6 ppt
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