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LEADERSHIP. Why do we need leadership?.

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LEADERSHIP

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LEADERSHIP

HED 362 – L. Good


Why do we need leadership?

“You don’t need leadership to eat a warm cookie. The only reason for leadership is to convince people to do things that are either dangerous or stupid. Generally speaking, wherever there is leadership, there’s lots of hollering and a few warm cookies. Let’s enjoy the lack of leadership while we have it.”

Scott AdamsDon’t Step in the Leadership

HED 362 – L. Good


Leaders

  • Think of the most effective leader you have known

    • Traits

    • Situation

  • Think of the most ineffective leader you have known

    • Traits

    • Situation

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Theories

  • Trait Theories

    • 1920’s – 1950’s

    • Personal characteristics

      • Intelligence, dominance, alertness

    • Leaders born not made

    • No cause and effect between leadership and traits

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Qualities

  • Honesty

    • Single most important ingredient is integrity

    • Measured by observing behavior

  • Forward Looking (Vision)

    • Sense of direction

    • Concern for future

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Qualities

  • Inspiring

    • Enthusiastic, energetic, positive

    • Cheerleader

  • Competent

    • Capable and effective to lead toward goals

    • Not a specialist in all areas – but takes time to learn

    • “Value-added” competence

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Qualities

  • Fair-minded

  • Supportive

  • Broad-minded

  • Intelligent

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Theories

  • Behavioral Theories

    • Late 1940’s - 1950’s

    • Behavior vs. traits

  • U of M studies

    • Production centered

    • Employee centered

    • PC less effective actual performance

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Theories

  • Ohio State studies

    • Initiating structure

      • Well defined job guidelines, channels of communication

    • Consideration

      • Emphasizes trust, respect, rapport, participatory decision making

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Theories

  • Ohio State studies – findings

    • Higher Initiating Structure yielded high proficiency ratings but more employee grievances

    • Higher Consideration yielded lower proficiency but lower absences

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Theories

  • Contingency/Situational Theories

    • Attention to the situation in which leaders function

    • Trait and behavioral theories were inadequate

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Theories

  • Fiedler’s Contingency Model

    • Group Performance contingent upon

      • Motivational system of leader

        • Task vs relationship

      • Degree to which leader has power and influence in a situation

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Theories

  • 3 situational factors

    • Leader-member relationship

      • Trust, confidence, respect for leader

    • Task structure

      • Clarity of specific job

    • Position power

      • Inherent in leadership position

HED 362 – L. Good


Case

  • Individual has 8 subordinates who like him. He structures the job by making work assignments and by setting goals for required outputs. He is also responsible for reviewing the work of subordinates and is the main spokesperson for and evaluator of the employees at merit review time.

HED 362 – L. Good


Case

  • Is leader member relationship good or poor?

    • Good

  • Is task-structure high or low?

    • High

  • Is position power strong or weak?

    • Strong

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Types

  • Transformational leaders – Bezos, Gates

    • Seek higher level needs- self-actualization

    • Internal rewards – big risks/big changes

    • Vision- motivation for followers

    • Charisma

    • Inspirational motivation – work for larger good of organization

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Types

  • Transactional leaders –Clinton

    • Exchange process – rewards/benefits for motivation/productivity

    • Contingent reward system- carrot/stick

    • Smaller changes, lower risks

    • MBO

    • Autocratic

    • Correct by negative feedback/discipline

HED 362 – L. Good


Self-actualization

Transformational Leadership helps you aim here

Aesthetic

Knowledge/understanding

Self-esteem

Love/Belonging

Transactional Mgt. gives these

Safety

Basic Needs

HED 362 – L. Good


Primary Differences between Transformational & Transactional Leadership

HED 362 – L. Good


LEADERSHIP - Types

  • Servant Leaders (many unknown leaders)

    • Leaders serve followers

    • Listens well – concerned with all

    • Do not necessarily strive to be leaders

HED 362 – L. Good


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