Unit 3 A taste of English humour
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Unit 3 A taste of English humour Grammar. 动词 - ing 形式作表语、定语和宾补. 动词 -ing 形式作表语、定语和宾补 一、动词 -ing 形式作表语 动名词作表语表示抽象的、一般的行为,现在分词作表语表示主语的特征、性质和状态。 我们最大的幸福是为人民服务。 Our greatest happiness is serving the people . (动名词) 我们的任务是建设社会主义。 Our task is building socialism. (动名词). 我们昨晚看的电影十分动人。

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Unit 3 A taste of English humour

Grammar

动词-ing形式作表语、定语和宾补


动词-ing形式作表语、定语和宾补

一、动词-ing形式作表语

动名词作表语表示抽象的、一般的行为,现在分词作表语表示主语的特征、性质和状态。

我们最大的幸福是为人民服务。

Our greatest happiness is serving the people.(动名词)

我们的任务是建设社会主义。

Our task is building socialism. (动名词)


我们昨晚看的电影十分动人。

The film we saw last night is quite moving. (现在分词)

他的话很鼓舞人。

His words are encouraging. (现在分词)


常用来作表语的现在分词有astonishing, amusing, confusing, disappointing, boring, encouraging, inspiring, moving, tiring, interesting, surprising等。

全析提示:(1)动名词作表语和主语是等值关系,两者有时可以互换,句子意思不变;动名词后面可以接宾语、状语。

(2)现在分词作表语和主语不是对等关系,现在分词后面不能接宾语,但它前面可以有修饰性的副词,如very, rather等。


二、动词-ing形式作定语

动名词作定语用来说明该名词的用途,不表示名词本身的动作;现在分词作定语与所修饰的名词具有逻辑上的主谓关系,即现在分词相当于所修饰名词的谓语。

我们必须改进工作方法。

We must improve our working method.(动名词)

他们将手术台架设在一座小庙里。

They set up an operating table in a small temple.(动名词)


中国是发展中国家。

China is a developing country.(现在分词)

正在做实验的那个学生是我们的班长。

The student making the experiment is our monitor.(现在分词)


  • 全析提示:

  • 动名词短语不能作定语,单个的动名词可以用作定语,但仅作前置定语。

  • 如 working method=method for working工作方法

  • 2. 单个分词和分词短语都可作定语,单个分词一般作前置定语,分词短语则作后置定语,相当于一个定语从句。

  • 如:the man visiting Japan=the man who is visiting Japan 访日的那个人。


三、动词-ing形式作宾补

动名词不能作宾语补足语。现在分词作宾补表示的是正在发生的动作。例如:

我看见他正在上楼。

I saw him going upstairs.

我们看着她在过大街。

We watched her crossing the street.

我们听见她在房间里唱歌。

We heard her singing in her room。


全析提示:接现在分析作宾语补足语的动词有feel, hear, listen to, see, look at, watch, observe, notice, find, smell, set, have, keep, start, leave, get catch等。


  • 2. Mr Smith, ______ of the ______ speech, started to read a novel.

  • tired; boring B. tiring; bored

  • C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring

  • 解析:此题考查现在分词与过去分词的区别。tired, moved, interested excited等过去分词叙述的是人的本身感受;tiring, moving, interesting, exciting等现在分词叙述的是某一物或事情给予人的感受。句意为“史密斯先生对这个令人厌烦的讲话感受厌倦了,所以开始读起一本小说来”。


高考链接 novel.

  • 1. The ______ boy was last seen ______ near the bank of the lake.

  • missing; playing B. missing; play

  • C. missed; played D. missed; to play

  • 解析:missing是形容词,作boy的定语,意思是“失踪的”。 was last seen playing表示被看见时正在玩。


  • 3. When we watched the national flag ______ in the Olympic Games on TV, we raised a cheer.

  • A. rise B. being risen

  • C. raised D. being raised

  • 解析:本题考查分词作补语,rise是不及物动词,先排除A、B两项,国旗是被人们升起的,应该用分词的被动形式,句意为:当看到电视中奥林匹克运动会上国旗正在被升起时,我们欢呼起来。


  • 4. He was in hospital for six months. He felt as if he was ______ from the outside world.

  • cut out B. cut off

  • C. cut up D. cut through

  • 解析:cut out的意思是“切下;删除”。cut off意思是“切断;使(人、城镇)孤立”。cut up的意思是“切碎”。cut through的意思是“穿越”。本句的意思是:他住院六个月感到似乎与外界隔绝了。


  • 5. We sat there, ______with what we listened to. ______ from the outside world.

  • satisfying B . to satisfy

  • C. contented D. content

  • 解析:本题考查动词用法。satisfied表示“感到满意的”,把A、B两项排除;content既是形容词,又是动词,be content with对……满足。


  • 6. The boy burst into tears ______ he saw his mother. ______ from the outside world.

  • direct B. direction

  • C. directly D. directly when

  • 解析:本题考查direct的用法,作动词时表示“导演;指示”;作副词时表示“径直地;直接地”,作形容词时是“直接的”;而directly表示“一……就”,相当于as soon as.


Homework
Homework ______ from the outside world.

Make use of different learning resources to summarize the rule

of v- ing forms.


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