Comparision of wood products and major substitutes with respect to environmental and energy balances
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Comparision of wood products and major substitutes with respect to environmental and energy balances Prof. Dr. Arno Frühwald University of Hamburg Centre for Wood Sience and Technology. BFH. World Forestry. World Forestry. Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breding.

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Comparision of wood products and major substitutes with respect to environmental and energy balances

Prof. Dr. Arno Frühwald

University of Hamburg

Centre for Wood Sience and Technology


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BFH


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World Forestry

World Forestry

Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breding

Forest Ecology and Forest Assessment

Wood Biology

Economics

Wood Biology and Wood Protection

Wood Technology

Wood Physics and Mechanical Technology of Wood

Wood Chemistry and chemical Technology of Wood

Organisation of R&D and teaching in Hamburg

University of Hamburg

Federal Research Centre for Foresty and Forest Products

National and international institution of R&D

FB - Biology


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Study of wood sience, business and technology

faculty

Sem.

Basic studies

- natural sience

- technical

- economicalbasics

ca. 120 canditates

(2/3 1/3 )

20 Students/ semester

3

Institutes

chair

Intermediate diploma

Advanced studies

- Wood as raw material

- Wood

- Wood trade and market

Institutes

5

Special subjects:

- Wood Biology

- Wood Technology

- Wood Chemestry

- Economics

- int. Forestry and Politics

chair

faculty

University degree:

Diplom-Holzwirt/in

Final diploma

Institutes

1,5

Diploma thesis

chair


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New environmental challenges for Forestry and Forest Products Sector

• sustainable management of resources

- Rio conference, world climate conferences

• reduced energy consumption

• reduced Global Warming Potential

• reduced emissions to air, water, soil

• recycling of materials

• biodiversity

Driving forces:

Kyoto-Protocol, Agenda 21


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emittance of

trace gases into the atmosphere

solar radiation

absorption

reflecion

FCKW

CO2

CH4

infrared-

radiation

Greenhouse Effect


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Green House Gases

calculated as Carbon (C)


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Emissions in t CO2 per capita

Germany:11 t CO2

Luxembourg:27 t CO2

USA:20 t CO2

Finland:12 t CO2

Canada:16 t CO2

Great Britain:10 t CO2

Sweden: 7 t CO2


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Kyoto-Protocol obligations

(Basis 1990 emissions, target year 2008/2012)

Europe:- 8 %

Germany:- 21 %

Austria:- 13 %

USA:no interest

Sweden:+ 4 %

Japan:- 6 %

New Zealand:+- 0 %


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Life Cycle Assessment

LCA is a method to describe

the ecological importance of a

product or service along it´s

life cycle from graddle to grave.

The method is described in the standards ISO/EN

  • 14.040Principles of LCA

  • 14.041Inventory Analysis (LCI)

  • 14.042Impact Assessment (LCIA)

  • 14.043Interpretation


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An inventory analysis

Raw

materials

products

emissions (incl. energy) to

system boundary

air

water

soil

system under study

Raw

material

Product

manufacture

Product

use

Incineration

capital

equipment

energy

auxiliary

materials

by-products


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Impact Categories

GWP: Global Warming Potential

AP: Actification Potential

EP:Eutrophication

HTP:Human Toxicity Potential

AETP:Aquatic Toxicity Potential

POCP:Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential

TETP:Terrestric Toxicity Potential


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Material and energy for glue lam and construction solid wood for structural use


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142

150

100

70

kg CO2-equivalents per m³

54

50

11

7

0

drying

overall

forestry

planning

sawmilling

Greenhouse gas emission of

construction solid timber (GWP)

Fixed CO2/m³:925,5 kg


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1,5

1,15

1,0

0,55

kg SO2-equivalents per m³

0,5

0,5

0,075

0,03

0

drying

overall

forestry

planning

sawmilling

Acidification Potential (AP) of

construction solid timber


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Glue Lam

CSL/Parallam

LVL/OSB

300

360

360

13

13

65

55

100

80

80

Ecological aspects of beam structures

moment of inertia22.500 cm420.000 cm417.500 cm4

wood volume per 10m beam 0,70 m30,22 m30,26 m3

type of logslarge diam.thinningslarge d. 75%

thinn. 25%


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Glue Lam

CSL/Parallam

LVL/OSB

300

360

360

13

13

65

55

100

80

80

Ecological aspects of beam structures

moment of inertia22.500 cm420.000 cm417.500 cm4

wood volume per10m beam 0,70 m30,22 m30,26 m3

type of logslarge diam.thinningslarge d. 75%

thinn. 25%

energy input1.400 MJ900 MJ1.300 MJ

fossil57 %37 %50 %

non-fossil43 %63 %50 %

CO2-Equiv. 33 kg17 kg27 kg


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Comparison of timber and non timber products

1 m² wall elements

Source: Waltjen, R. et al. 1999


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Example: single family houses


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Example: single family houses

No thermal utilisation of waste wood

Thermal utilisation of waste wood


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GWP 100

Case A

Case B

Framework construction

95.000

80.000

96.000

Blockhouse

53.000

115.000

Brick house

108.000

Example: single family houses


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AP

Case A

Case B

Framework construction

211

176

214

Blockhouse

118

256

Brick house

241

Example: single family houses


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EP

Case A

Case B

Framework construction

18

15

18

Blockhouse

10

22

Brick house

20

Example: single family houses


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POCP

Case A

Case B

Framework construction

5,4

4,5

5,5

Blockhouse

3,0

6,6

Brick house

6,2

Example: single family houses


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Impact potentials

10000

Steel

wood & steel

AP [t SO2 eq.]

8000

6000

4000

7613

EP [kg phosphate eq.]

POCP [kg ethene eq.]

2000

648

196

0

1

2

3

-84

-278

-3264

-2000

-4000

Example: Simple (three-storey) buildings


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Steel

Wood & Steel

4.000

3.410

t CO2 eq.

0

- 1.463

- 2.000

Example: Simple (three-storey) buildings

GWP 100


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Example: Window frames


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Example: Window frames


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Example: Window frames


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energy for recycling

3.000

energy for manufacture

2.500

energy for production

2.000

MJ

1.500

1.000

500

0

- 500

Brick

Cement

Wood

Example: Noise protection elements

Energy consumption (PEI)

Source: Richter, Künniger, 2001


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3.000

2.500

2.000

MJ

1.500

1.000

500

0

- 500

Brick

Cement

Wood

Example: noice protection elements

Energy consumption (PEI)

energy renewable

energy fossil

energy from waste

Source: Richter, Künniger, 2001


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Energy consumption vs. Energy potential

Consumption

Energy potential in

consump.

potent.


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Thank you for listening

Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit

Tack för Uppmärksamheten

Merci beaucoup pour votre attention

Vi ringrazio per la cortese attenzione

Muchas gracias por su atención


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Sequestration – forests + wood products

Substitution effects

- material substitution

- energy substitution

Carbon aspects


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solar energy

H2O

6 O2

6 CO2

C6H12O6

(biomass)

Photosynthesis


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Atmosphere

130 mill t carbon/year forests

CO2-sinks

CO2 equiv.

900 mill t carbon/year

EUROPE

OCEANS

C-sink

harvest

fossile fuels

replace

fuelwood

Closed carbon cycle


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C-sink data for wood species

1 m³ softwood (pine, spruce, larch)

~ 400 - 550 kg dry matter

~ 200 - 275 kg carbon

1 m³ hardwood (beach, oak, ash, others)

~ 400 - 700 kg dry matter

~ 200 - 350 kg carbon

average in Europe

1 m³  500 - 600 kg dry matter or 250 - 300 kg carbon


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Carbon sink in Forests

carbon stocks in trees and soils

of European Forests~ 20.000 Mio t C

of which

carbon stock in tree biomass~ 8.000 Mio t C

estimated net sequestration

- in trees~ 100 Mio t C/y

- in soils~ 30 Mio t C/y

- total~ 130 Mio t C/y

total carbon emission Europe~ 900 Mio t C/y

(Source: Karjalainen et al. 2000)


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(political) C-Sinks in forests

accepted by COP 6 / COP 7

Germany:1,24 Mio t/y

Austria:0,63 Mio t/y

Sweden:0,58 Mio t/y

Japan: 13 Mio t/y

Canada: 12 Mio t/y

Finland:0,16 Mio t/y

New Zealand:0,2 Mio t/y

Russia: 20 Mio t/ycompared to physical sink acc to Karjalinen et al. 130 Mio t/y


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Carbon sink - wood products

carbon stocks in wood products

• wooden windows25 kg C/unit

• wooden floor (parquet)5 kg C/m²

• furniture per family1.000 kg C/family

• roof brick type house1.000 - 3.000 kg C/unit

• wooden house10.000 - 25.000 kg C/unit


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C-sink wood products - Germany


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Expansion of German values to European sink

Germany80 Mio people- 334 Mio C-sink in wood/paper products

EU (15) 375 Mio people 1.565 Mio C-sinks in wood products

remarks:

- building sector is different within EU regarding wooden buildings (North - South)

- other wood utilization sectors differ much within the EU

Total carbon Emission Europe900 Mio t/y


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C-sink in wood products EU (15)

Estimates based on German situation:

total C-sink1.565 Mio t

net sequestration13 - 16 Mio t/y

Total C-emissions ~ 900 Mio t/y

C-sink in wood products3,5 - 4,5 % 40 - 50 %

C-sink in forests 14 %130 %

in % of

total emissions

reduction obligation


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Average life time of wood products - Germany

Results from inquires and field research:

newspaper 0,2 years

magazines 0,5 years

books25 years

packaging 2 years

furniture

low price10 years

high price30 years

outdoor uses15 years

buildings

decoration30 years

structural use75 years

average33 years (weighed by volume)


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C-emissions during life cycle and C-sink

195 m² living space

C-Emissions [t]

manufacture 28,1

construction 0,6

maintenance of house 5,5

use (60 y) 43,7

recycling 3,3

transport 0,4

total81,8 t C

C-sink during 60 years25,5 t C

Source: Pohlmann 2002


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M

M

H

M

H

M

H

H

CO2 emission

CO2-balance

stored CO2

Use phase (60 Years)

total CO2-emission

production

H: wooden house

M: stone haus

CO2-emission wood/stone house

(Source: Pohlmann 2002)


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C-Sink in wooden houses

Per house compared to brick type reduces C-emissions by 10 t

If additional 10 % of all houses in Europe would be build with wood, the C-emissions are reduced by

1,8 Mio. t (~ 2% of all C-emissions)

(After enlargement of the EU an increase is to expept)


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SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS

IN GENERAL:

If wood products substitute non wood based products less fossil energy is required because of:

• wood based products require less energy for manufacture

• processing residues and products after use are a source for energy

Substitution effects reduce fossil fuel consumption and therefore have a direct influence on GHG emission reduction („100% Kyoto-Protocol“)


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Substitution effects

no wood utilisation

C-sink remains

Processing residues

energy

carbon and

energy pool

reduced carbon and

energy pool

Processing residues and wood products after use

replace fossil energy

timber products replace

non-timber products

energetic comparison

(production energy)

Substitution of material

Substitution of fossil fuels


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energy input

3.000 MJ

1 m³ logs

recycling or energy

7.200 MJ

processing

0,8 m³ products

1 m³ for energy

9.000 MJ

0,2 m³ for energy

1.800 MJ

Δ = 6.000 MJ/m³ energy surplus

Energy aspects of wooden products


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Alternative building material (non-wood)

(equiv. to 1 m³ of logs)

recycling or landfill

processing

~ 6.000 MJ

no energy

Δ = 6.000 MJ/m³ energy consumption

Energy aspects of non-wooden products


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Summary comparison wood - non wood system

a) from wood system6.000 MJ/m³ logs surplus energy

(to replace fossil energy)

b) from non wood systems6.000 MJ/m³ logs equivalent input

(fossil energy)

Wood system replaces 12.000 MJ/m³ logs fossil energy

=> equivalent to 1,10 t CO2 or 0,30 t C emitted into atmosphere

Compared to storage in the forest

1 m³ is equivalent to ~ 0,25 t C or 0,90 t CO2

The consequences:use more wood

• first to produce products

• second to produce energy


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C-storage in products and in forests (above ground)

0,25 t C per m³ wood

C-substitution

0,30 t C per m³ wood

Reduction of emissions!

Timber cuttings in Europe (EU 15) 251 Mio m³/y

10 % increase 25 Mio m³/y

 C-emission reduction 12,5 Mio t C/y

1,4 % of all emissions


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Conclusions

1. Forest and long life timber products are important carbon sinks.

2. European forests are sustainable managed.

3.Wood products require little energy for manufacture.

4. More than 75% of the required energy is produced from wood residues

and recovered wood.

5.Wood and wood products after use are important energy sources.

6. Alternative non-wood based products require more energy for

manufacture.

7.The total CO2 reduction potential by using wood sink and substitution

effects is up to 300 Mill. tons of CO2 per year in Europe, 15-20% of all

CO2-emissions in Europe.

8.1 m³ of round wood used in building sector can reduce the CO2-

emission from fossil fuels up to 1,1 tons or 0,3 t C.

9. Substitution effect is more important than sink effect.

10.For environmental reasons: use more wood!


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