Comparision of wood products and major substitutes with respect to environmental and energy balances
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Comparision of wood products and major substitutes with respect to environmental and energy balances Prof. Dr. Arno Frühwald University of Hamburg Centre for Wood Sience and Technology. BFH. World Forestry. World Forestry. Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breding.

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Comparision of wood products and major substitutes with respect to environmental and energy balances

Prof. Dr. Arno Frühwald

University of Hamburg

Centre for Wood Sience and Technology


BFH respect to environmental and energy balances


World Forestry respect to environmental and energy balances

World Forestry

Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breding

Forest Ecology and Forest Assessment

Wood Biology

Economics

Wood Biology and Wood Protection

Wood Technology

Wood Physics and Mechanical Technology of Wood

Wood Chemistry and chemical Technology of Wood

Organisation of R&D and teaching in Hamburg

University of Hamburg

Federal Research Centre for Foresty and Forest Products

National and international institution of R&D

FB - Biology


Study of wood sience, business and technology respect to environmental and energy balances

faculty

Sem.

Basic studies

- natural sience

- technical

- economicalbasics

ca. 120 canditates

(2/3 1/3 )

20 Students/ semester

3

Institutes

chair

Intermediate diploma

Advanced studies

- Wood as raw material

- Wood

- Wood trade and market

Institutes

5

Special subjects:

- Wood Biology

- Wood Technology

- Wood Chemestry

- Economics

- int. Forestry and Politics

chair

faculty

University degree:

Diplom-Holzwirt/in

Final diploma

Institutes

1,5

Diploma thesis

chair


New environmental challenges for Forestry and Forest Products Sector

• sustainable management of resources

- Rio conference, world climate conferences

• reduced energy consumption

• reduced Global Warming Potential

• reduced emissions to air, water, soil

• recycling of materials

• biodiversity

Driving forces:

Kyoto-Protocol, Agenda 21


emittance of Products Sector

trace gases into the atmosphere

solar radiation

absorption

reflecion

FCKW

CO2

CH4

infrared-

radiation

Greenhouse Effect


Green House Gases Products Sector

calculated as Carbon (C)


Emissions in t CO Products Sector2 per capita

Germany: 11 t CO2

Luxembourg: 27 t CO2

USA: 20 t CO2

Finland: 12 t CO2

Canada: 16 t CO2

Great Britain: 10 t CO2

Sweden: 7 t CO2


Kyoto-Protocol obligations Products Sector

(Basis 1990 emissions, target year 2008/2012)

Europe: - 8 %

Germany: - 21 %

Austria: - 13 %

USA: no interest

Sweden: + 4 %

Japan: - 6 %

New Zealand: +- 0 %


Life Cycle Assessment Products Sector

LCA is a method to describe

the ecological importance of a

product or service along it´s

life cycle from graddle to grave.

The method is described in the standards ISO/EN

  • 14.040 Principles of LCA

  • 14.041 Inventory Analysis (LCI)

  • 14.042 Impact Assessment (LCIA)

  • 14.043 Interpretation


An inventory analysis Products Sector

Raw

materials

products

emissions (incl. energy) to

system boundary

air

water

soil

system under study

Raw

material

Product

manufacture

Product

use

Incineration

capital

equipment

energy

auxiliary

materials

by-products


Impact Categories Products Sector

GWP: Global Warming Potential

AP: Actification Potential

EP: Eutrophication

HTP: Human Toxicity Potential

AETP: Aquatic Toxicity Potential

POCP: Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential

TETP: Terrestric Toxicity Potential



142 for structural use

150

100

70

kg CO2-equivalents per m³

54

50

11

7

0

drying

overall

forestry

planning

sawmilling

Greenhouse gas emission of

construction solid timber (GWP)

Fixed CO2/m³: 925,5 kg


1,5 for structural use

1,15

1,0

0,55

kg SO2-equivalents per m³

0,5

0,5

0,075

0,03

0

drying

overall

forestry

planning

sawmilling

Acidification Potential (AP) of

construction solid timber


Glue Lam for structural use

CSL/Parallam

LVL/OSB

300

360

360

13

13

65

55

100

80

80

Ecological aspects of beam structures

moment of inertia 22.500 cm4 20.000 cm4 17.500 cm4

wood volume per 10m beam 0,70 m3 0,22 m3 0,26 m3

type of logs large diam. thinnings large d. 75%

thinn. 25%


Glue Lam for structural use

CSL/Parallam

LVL/OSB

300

360

360

13

13

65

55

100

80

80

Ecological aspects of beam structures

moment of inertia 22.500 cm4 20.000 cm4 17.500 cm4

wood volume per10m beam 0,70 m3 0,22 m3 0,26 m3

type of logs large diam. thinnings large d. 75%

thinn. 25%

energy input 1.400 MJ 900 MJ 1.300 MJ

fossil 57 % 37 % 50 %

non-fossil 43 % 63 % 50 %

CO2-Equiv. 33 kg 17 kg 27 kg


Comparison of timber and non timber products for structural use

1 m² wall elements

Source: Waltjen, R. et al. 1999



Example: single family houses for structural use

No thermal utilisation of waste wood

Thermal utilisation of waste wood


GWP 100 for structural use

Case A

Case B

Framework construction

95.000

80.000

96.000

Blockhouse

53.000

115.000

Brick house

108.000

Example: single family houses


AP for structural use

Case A

Case B

Framework construction

211

176

214

Blockhouse

118

256

Brick house

241

Example: single family houses


EP for structural use

Case A

Case B

Framework construction

18

15

18

Blockhouse

10

22

Brick house

20

Example: single family houses


POCP for structural use

Case A

Case B

Framework construction

5,4

4,5

5,5

Blockhouse

3,0

6,6

Brick house

6,2

Example: single family houses


Impact potentials for structural use

10000

Steel

wood & steel

AP [t SO2 eq.]

8000

6000

4000

7613

EP [kg phosphate eq.]

POCP [kg ethene eq.]

2000

648

196

0

1

2

3

-84

-278

-3264

-2000

-4000

Example: Simple (three-storey) buildings


Steel for structural use

Wood & Steel

4.000

3.410

t CO2 eq.

0

- 1.463

- 2.000

Example: Simple (three-storey) buildings

GWP 100


Example: Window frames for structural use


Example: Window frames for structural use


Example: Window frames for structural use


energy for recycling for structural use

3.000

energy for manufacture

2.500

energy for production

2.000

MJ

1.500

1.000

500

0

- 500

Brick

Cement

Wood

Example: Noise protection elements

Energy consumption (PEI)

Source: Richter, Künniger, 2001


3.000 for structural use

2.500

2.000

MJ

1.500

1.000

500

0

- 500

Brick

Cement

Wood

Example: noice protection elements

Energy consumption (PEI)

energy renewable

energy fossil

energy from waste

Source: Richter, Künniger, 2001


Energy consumption vs. Energy potential for structural use

Consumption

Energy potential in

consump.

potent.


Thank you for listening for structural use

Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit

Tack för Uppmärksamheten

Merci beaucoup pour votre attention

Vi ringrazio per la cortese attenzione

Muchas gracias por su atención


Sequestration – forests + wood products for structural use

Substitution effects

- material substitution

- energy substitution

Carbon aspects


solar energy for structural use

H2O

6 O2

6 CO2

C6H12O6

(biomass)

Photosynthesis


Atmosphere for structural use

130 mill t carbon/year forests

CO2-sinks

CO2 equiv.

900 mill t carbon/year

EUROPE

OCEANS

C-sink

harvest

fossile fuels

replace

fuelwood

Closed carbon cycle


C-sink data for wood species for structural use

1 m³ softwood (pine, spruce, larch)

~ 400 - 550 kg dry matter

~ 200 - 275 kg carbon

1 m³ hardwood (beach, oak, ash, others)

~ 400 - 700 kg dry matter

~ 200 - 350 kg carbon

average in Europe

1 m³  500 - 600 kg dry matter or 250 - 300 kg carbon


Carbon sink in Forests for structural use

carbon stocks in trees and soils

of European Forests ~ 20.000 Mio t C

of which

carbon stock in tree biomass ~ 8.000 Mio t C

estimated net sequestration

- in trees ~ 100 Mio t C/y

- in soils ~ 30 Mio t C/y

- total ~ 130 Mio t C/y

total carbon emission Europe ~ 900 Mio t C/y

(Source: Karjalainen et al. 2000)


(political) C-Sinks in forests for structural use

accepted by COP 6 / COP 7

Germany: 1,24 Mio t/y

Austria: 0,63 Mio t/y

Sweden: 0,58 Mio t/y

Japan: 13 Mio t/y

Canada: 12 Mio t/y

Finland: 0,16 Mio t/y

New Zealand: 0,2 Mio t/y

Russia: 20 Mio t/y compared to physical sink acc to Karjalinen et al. 130 Mio t/y


Carbon sink - wood products for structural use

carbon stocks in wood products

• wooden windows 25 kg C/unit

• wooden floor (parquet) 5 kg C/m²

• furniture per family 1.000 kg C/family

• roof brick type house 1.000 - 3.000 kg C/unit

• wooden house 10.000 - 25.000 kg C/unit



Expansion of German values to European sink for structural use

Germany 80 Mio people - 334 Mio C-sink in wood/paper products

EU (15) 375 Mio people 1.565 Mio C-sinks in wood products

remarks:

- building sector is different within EU regarding wooden buildings (North - South)

- other wood utilization sectors differ much within the EU

Total carbon Emission Europe 900 Mio t/y


C-sink in wood products EU (15) for structural use

Estimates based on German situation:

total C-sink 1.565 Mio t

net sequestration 13 - 16 Mio t/y

Total C-emissions ~ 900 Mio t/y

C-sink in wood products 3,5 - 4,5 % 40 - 50 %

C-sink in forests 14 % 130 %

in % of

total emissions

reduction obligation


Average life time of wood products - Germany for structural use

Results from inquires and field research:

newspaper 0,2 years

magazines 0,5 years

books 25 years

packaging 2 years

furniture

low price 10 years

high price 30 years

outdoor uses 15 years

buildings

decoration 30 years

structural use 75 years

average 33 years (weighed by volume)


C-emissions during life cycle and C-sink for structural use

195 m² living space

C-Emissions [t]

manufacture 28,1

construction 0,6

maintenance of house 5,5

use (60 y) 43,7

recycling 3,3

transport 0,4

total 81,8 t C

C-sink during 60 years 25,5 t C

Source: Pohlmann 2002


M for structural use

M

H

M

H

M

H

H

CO2 emission

CO2-balance

stored CO2

Use phase (60 Years)

total CO2-emission

production

H: wooden house

M: stone haus

CO2-emission wood/stone house

(Source: Pohlmann 2002)


C-Sink in wooden houses for structural use

Per house compared to brick type reduces C-emissions by 10 t

 If additional 10 % of all houses in Europe would be build with wood, the C-emissions are reduced by

1,8 Mio. t (~ 2% of all C-emissions)

(After enlargement of the EU an increase is to expept)


SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS for structural use

IN GENERAL:

If wood products substitute non wood based products less fossil energy is required because of:

• wood based products require less energy for manufacture

• processing residues and products after use are a source for energy

Substitution effects reduce fossil fuel consumption and therefore have a direct influence on GHG emission reduction („100% Kyoto-Protocol“)


Substitution effects for structural use

no wood utilisation

C-sink remains

Processing residues

energy

carbon and

energy pool

reduced carbon and

energy pool

Processing residues and wood products after use

replace fossil energy

timber products replace

non-timber products

energetic comparison

(production energy)

Substitution of material

Substitution of fossil fuels


energy input for structural use

3.000 MJ

1 m³ logs

recycling or energy

7.200 MJ

processing

0,8 m³ products

1 m³ for energy

9.000 MJ

0,2 m³ for energy

1.800 MJ

Δ = 6.000 MJ/m³ energy surplus

Energy aspects of wooden products


Alternative building material (non-wood) for structural use

(equiv. to 1 m³ of logs)

recycling or landfill

processing

~ 6.000 MJ

no energy

Δ = 6.000 MJ/m³ energy consumption

Energy aspects of non-wooden products


Summary comparison wood - non wood system for structural use

a) from wood system 6.000 MJ/m³ logs surplus energy

(to replace fossil energy)

b) from non wood systems 6.000 MJ/m³ logs equivalent input

(fossil energy)

Wood system replaces 12.000 MJ/m³ logs fossil energy

=> equivalent to 1,10 t CO2 or 0,30 t C emitted into atmosphere

Compared to storage in the forest

1 m³ is equivalent to ~ 0,25 t C or 0,90 t CO2

The consequences: use more wood

• first to produce products

• second to produce energy


C-storage in products and in forests (above ground) for structural use

0,25 t C per m³ wood

C-substitution

0,30 t C per m³ wood

Reduction of emissions!

Timber cuttings in Europe (EU 15) 251 Mio m³/y

10 % increase 25 Mio m³/y

 C-emission reduction 12,5 Mio t C/y

1,4 % of all emissions


Conclusions for structural use

1. Forest and long life timber products are important carbon sinks.

2. European forests are sustainable managed.

3. Wood products require little energy for manufacture.

4. More than 75% of the required energy is produced from wood residues

and recovered wood.

5. Wood and wood products after use are important energy sources.

6. Alternative non-wood based products require more energy for

manufacture.

7. The total CO2 reduction potential by using wood sink and substitution

effects is up to 300 Mill. tons of CO2 per year in Europe, 15-20% of all

CO2-emissions in Europe.

8. 1 m³ of round wood used in building sector can reduce the CO2-

emission from fossil fuels up to 1,1 tons or 0,3 t C.

9. Substitution effect is more important than sink effect.

10. For environmental reasons: use more wood!