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What’s wrong with this picture?. Chapter 11. Infection Control. Primary survey. overview. B loodborne pathogens are transmitted through contact with blood or other bodily fluids. Hepatitis B and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus are of serious concern. overview.

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What s wrong with this picture

What’s wrong with this picture?


Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Infection Control


Primary survey

Primary survey


Overview

overview

  • Bloodborne pathogens are transmitted through contact with blood or other bodily fluids.

  • Hepatitis B and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus are of serious concern.


Overview1

overview

  • A heath care facility must be maintained as clean and sterile to prevent the spread of disease and infection.

  • Precautions must be made to minimize the risk of transmission.


Bloodborne pathogens

bloodborne pathogens

  • Pathogenic microorganisms that can potentially cause disease

  • Transmitted by human blood, semen, vaginal secretions, CSF, & synovial fluid


Bloodborne pathogens1

bloodborne pathogens

  • Three main concerns:

    • HBV, HCV, and HIV

    • Additional viruses

      • HAV, HDV, HEV

  • Make host cells ill by reducing cellular activity

    • Redirect cell activity to create more viruses


Hepatitis b virus

Hepatitis b virus

  • Signs and Symptoms

    • Swelling, soreness, & loss of normal liver function

    • Flu-like symptoms, abdominal pain, fever, headache, jaundice

    • May test positive 2-6 weeks after symptoms develop

    • 85% recover in 6 to 8 weeks


Hepatitis b virus1

Hepatitis b virus

  • Prevention

    • Good personal hygiene

    • Avoid high risk activities

    • Virus may survive 7 dayson contaminated surfaces

  • Management

    • Vaccination – required for AHC

    • 3 dose vaccination over 6 months


Hepatitis c virus

Hepatitis C virus

  • Acute and chronic liver disease

  • Most common chronic bloodborne infection in USA

  • Signs & Symptoms

    • ~80% do NOT have signs and symptoms

    • Jaundiced, abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite, joint/muscle pain, fatigue, dark urine


Hepatitis c virus1

Hepatitis C virus

  • Prevention

    • Spread through contact w/ infected blood

      • Usually needles or tools with blood on them

      • Rarely through sexual contact

  • Management

    • No vaccine; drug management


Human immunodeficiency virus

Human immunodeficiency virus

  • Signs & Symptoms

    • Fatigue, weight loss, muscle/joint pain, painful or swollen glands, night sweats, fever

    • May not develop symptoms for up to 8-10 years

    • Will eventually develop AIDS


Human immunodeficiency virus1

Human immunodeficiency virus

  • Management

    • No vaccine, but there are drugtherapies

  • Prevention

    • Safe-sex choices

    • Avoid body fluids & sharing needles


Disease transmission

Disease transmission

  • Athletics involve skin-to-skin contact

    • Some can cause breaks in the skin

      • Lacerations

      • Abrasions

      • Punctures

  • Limited risk of on-field transmission of HIV

    • Est. risk in football <1:1,000,000 games


Disease transmission1

Disease transmission

  • Some sports may have higher risk

    • Boxing, wrestling, rugby, martial arts

    • Basketball, football, hockey, soccer

    • Non-contact sports have lowest risk


What s wrong with this picture

But…

  • The risk of transmitting a disease exists

    • Must be aware of surroundings

  • Know the chain of infection


Chain of infection

Chain of infection

pathogen


The infection cycle

The Infection Cycle

  • Infection cycle: chain of events allowing a pathogen to infect a host:

    • Pathogen is present

    • Reservoir host

    • Portal of exit

    • Route of transmission

    • Portal of entry

    • Susceptible host


Breaking the chain

Breaking the chain

  • The spread of disease can be stopped by removing any link in the chain

  • Two ways to remove a link

    • Kill the bacteria before it enters the host

    • Change the environment the bacteria lives in

      • Moist  dry

      • Increase temperature


Help prevent the spread of infection

Help Prevent the Spread of Infection!

  • Wash hands frequently

  • Wear gloves and other protective clothing

    • Gowns, goggles, and masks

      • Exposure to blood or other body fluids exists

      • Working with clients who may be infectious


Help prevent the spread of infection1

Help Prevent the Spread of Infection!

  • Keep your immunizations up-to-date

    • Especially hepatitis vaccinations


Breaking the chain1

Breaking the Chain

pathogen


Medical asepsis clean technique

Medical Asepsis(Clean Technique)

  • Practices and procedures designed to ensure a clean environment

    • Removing or destroying disease-causing microorganisms


Handwashing the key to medical asepsis

Handwashing:The Key to Medical Asepsis

  • Handwashing is done at the following times:

    • When first arriving at work

    • Before performing each procedure on a client

    • During a procedure if hands become contaminated


Handwashing the key to medical asepsis1

Handwashing:The Key to Medical Asepsis

  • Handwashing is done at the following times:

    • Between each client when a procedure is performed

    • After using the restroom

    • After removing gloves from your hands

    • Before eating


Universal precautions

Universal precautions

  • Use Personal Precautions

    • Wash hand & skin surfaces

  • Proper Hand Washing


Using gloves

Using Gloves

  • The athletic trainer:

    • Should always wear gloves whenever blood or body fluids are present

      • Even when the potential for such fluids are present, gloves must be worn


Universal precautions1

Universal precautions

  • Use Personal Precautions

    • Extreme care must be used with glove removal

    • Glove Removal


Contaminated sharps

Contaminated Sharps

  • A serious risk exists when punctured by a needle or other sharp object

  • Dispose of all needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp objects in the proper puncture-resistant container


Reducing the risk of puncture wounds

Reducing the Risk of Puncture Wounds

  • Never recap, bend, or manually remove a dirty needle

  • Always deposit the entire syringe and needle or sharp object in puncture-resistant container


Reducing the risk of puncture wounds1

Reducing the Risk of Puncture Wounds

  • Immediately clean a puncture wound with alcohol and Betadine and cover the wound

    • Report this to your supervisor


Reducing the risk of puncture wounds2

Reducing the Risk of Puncture Wounds

  • Never carry needles or sharp objects from one location to another with the tips pointing toward other people or yourself

    • Point them toward the floor


The risk of hepatitis

The Risk of Hepatitis

  • Handwashing is critical for reducing hepatitis spread

    • Often transmitted through the fecal-oral route due to not washing one’s hands after using the bathroom


What s wrong with this picture

AIDS

  • Incurable (at present) disease

    • Great care must be taken to avoid contact with this virus

    • Wash hands

    • Wear protective eyewear, gloves, and a mask to prevent exposure to splattering blood or other body fluids


Universal precautions2

Universal Precautions

  • Health care workers must be familiar with these precautions:

    • Wear gloves when one has contact with blood, body secretions, or broken skin

    • Do not reuse gloves


Universal precautions3

Universal Precautions

  • Health care workers must be familiar with these precautions:

    • Wear protective eyewear and a mask during any procedures that may expose you to splattering blood or other body fluids


Universal precautions4

Universal Precautions

  • Health care workers must be familiar with these precautions:

    • Wear disposable gowns if blood or body fluids may splatter

    • Thoroughly wash hands and other skin surfaces immediately following contamination


Universal precautions5

Universal Precautions

  • Health care workers must be completely familiar with these precautions:

    • Avoid giving direct mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

    • Use mouth-to-mask method, resuscitator bags, and other available equipment


Universal precautions6

Universal Precautions

  • Health care workers must be completely familiar with these precautions:

    • Keep an airway nearby when working in a health care environment

    • Avoid direct patient contact if you have open wounds or other skin conditions


Universal precautions7

Universal Precautions

  • Healthcare workers must be completely familiar with these precautions:

    • Wash your hands after each patient contact and after removing gloves

    • Carefully dispose of all sharp objects in appropriate puncture-resistant containers


Body secretions for which standard precautions are used

Body Secretions for which Standard Precautions Are Used

  • Urine

  • Sputum

  • Fecal material

  • Wound drainage

  • Semen

  • Vaginal secretions


Body secretions for which standard precautions are used1

Body Secretions for which Standard Precautions Are Used

  • Tissues

  • Synovial fluid

    • Around a joint

  • Cerebrospinal fluid

    • Around brain and spinal cord


Body secretions for which standard precautions are used2

Body Secretions for which Standard Precautions Are Used

  • Pleural fluid

    • Lung

  • Peritoneal fluid

    • Abdominal cavity

  • Pericardial fluid

    • Around the heart

  • Amniotic fluid


Universal precautions8

Universal precautions

  • Protect Coaches & ATs

    • Policy for OSHA training

    • Purchase proper supplies

  • Protect Athletes

    • Use mouthpieces in high-risk sports

    • Shower immediately

    • Immunizations

  • Postexposure Procedures

    • Confidential medical evaluation


Take home message

Take home message…

  • Minimize risks by not eating/drinking, applying cosmetics/lip balm, handling contact lenses, and touching face before washing hands in athletic training room


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