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What’s wrong with this picture?. Chapter 11. Infection Control. Primary survey. overview. B loodborne pathogens are transmitted through contact with blood or other bodily fluids. Hepatitis B and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus are of serious concern. overview.

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chapter 11

Chapter 11

Infection Control

overview
overview
  • Bloodborne pathogens are transmitted through contact with blood or other bodily fluids.
  • Hepatitis B and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus are of serious concern.
overview1
overview
  • A heath care facility must be maintained as clean and sterile to prevent the spread of disease and infection.
  • Precautions must be made to minimize the risk of transmission.
bloodborne pathogens
bloodborne pathogens
  • Pathogenic microorganisms that can potentially cause disease
  • Transmitted by human blood, semen, vaginal secretions, CSF, & synovial fluid
bloodborne pathogens1
bloodborne pathogens
  • Three main concerns:
    • HBV, HCV, and HIV
    • Additional viruses
      • HAV, HDV, HEV
  • Make host cells ill by reducing cellular activity
    • Redirect cell activity to create more viruses
hepatitis b virus
Hepatitis b virus
  • Signs and Symptoms
    • Swelling, soreness, & loss of normal liver function
    • Flu-like symptoms, abdominal pain, fever, headache, jaundice
    • May test positive 2-6 weeks after symptoms develop
    • 85% recover in 6 to 8 weeks
hepatitis b virus1
Hepatitis b virus
  • Prevention
    • Good personal hygiene
    • Avoid high risk activities
    • Virus may survive 7 dayson contaminated surfaces
  • Management
    • Vaccination – required for AHC
    • 3 dose vaccination over 6 months
hepatitis c virus
Hepatitis C virus
  • Acute and chronic liver disease
  • Most common chronic bloodborne infection in USA
  • Signs & Symptoms
    • ~80% do NOT have signs and symptoms
    • Jaundiced, abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite, joint/muscle pain, fatigue, dark urine
hepatitis c virus1
Hepatitis C virus
  • Prevention
    • Spread through contact w/ infected blood
      • Usually needles or tools with blood on them
      • Rarely through sexual contact
  • Management
    • No vaccine; drug management
human immunodeficiency virus
Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Signs & Symptoms
    • Fatigue, weight loss, muscle/joint pain, painful or swollen glands, night sweats, fever
    • May not develop symptoms for up to 8-10 years
    • Will eventually develop AIDS
human immunodeficiency virus1
Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Management
    • No vaccine, but there are drugtherapies
  • Prevention
    • Safe-sex choices
    • Avoid body fluids & sharing needles
disease transmission
Disease transmission
  • Athletics involve skin-to-skin contact
    • Some can cause breaks in the skin
      • Lacerations
      • Abrasions
      • Punctures
  • Limited risk of on-field transmission of HIV
    • Est. risk in football <1:1,000,000 games
disease transmission1
Disease transmission
  • Some sports may have higher risk
    • Boxing, wrestling, rugby, martial arts
    • Basketball, football, hockey, soccer
    • Non-contact sports have lowest risk
slide16
But…
  • The risk of transmitting a disease exists
    • Must be aware of surroundings
  • Know the chain of infection
the infection cycle
The Infection Cycle
  • Infection cycle: chain of events allowing a pathogen to infect a host:
    • Pathogen is present
    • Reservoir host
    • Portal of exit
    • Route of transmission
    • Portal of entry
    • Susceptible host
breaking the chain
Breaking the chain
  • The spread of disease can be stopped by removing any link in the chain
  • Two ways to remove a link
    • Kill the bacteria before it enters the host
    • Change the environment the bacteria lives in
      • Moist  dry
      • Increase temperature
help prevent the spread of infection
Help Prevent the Spread of Infection!
  • Wash hands frequently
  • Wear gloves and other protective clothing
    • Gowns, goggles, and masks
      • Exposure to blood or other body fluids exists
      • Working with clients who may be infectious
help prevent the spread of infection1
Help Prevent the Spread of Infection!
  • Keep your immunizations up-to-date
    • Especially hepatitis vaccinations
medical asepsis clean technique
Medical Asepsis(Clean Technique)
  • Practices and procedures designed to ensure a clean environment
    • Removing or destroying disease-causing microorganisms
handwashing the key to medical asepsis
Handwashing:The Key to Medical Asepsis
  • Handwashing is done at the following times:
    • When first arriving at work
    • Before performing each procedure on a client
    • During a procedure if hands become contaminated
handwashing the key to medical asepsis1
Handwashing:The Key to Medical Asepsis
  • Handwashing is done at the following times:
    • Between each client when a procedure is performed
    • After using the restroom
    • After removing gloves from your hands
    • Before eating
universal precautions
Universal precautions
  • Use Personal Precautions
    • Wash hand & skin surfaces
  • Proper Hand Washing
using gloves
Using Gloves
  • The athletic trainer:
    • Should always wear gloves whenever blood or body fluids are present
      • Even when the potential for such fluids are present, gloves must be worn
universal precautions1
Universal precautions
  • Use Personal Precautions
    • Extreme care must be used with glove removal
    • Glove Removal
contaminated sharps
Contaminated Sharps
  • A serious risk exists when punctured by a needle or other sharp object
  • Dispose of all needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp objects in the proper puncture-resistant container
reducing the risk of puncture wounds
Reducing the Risk of Puncture Wounds
  • Never recap, bend, or manually remove a dirty needle
  • Always deposit the entire syringe and needle or sharp object in puncture-resistant container
reducing the risk of puncture wounds1
Reducing the Risk of Puncture Wounds
  • Immediately clean a puncture wound with alcohol and Betadine and cover the wound
    • Report this to your supervisor
reducing the risk of puncture wounds2
Reducing the Risk of Puncture Wounds
  • Never carry needles or sharp objects from one location to another with the tips pointing toward other people or yourself
    • Point them toward the floor
the risk of hepatitis
The Risk of Hepatitis
  • Handwashing is critical for reducing hepatitis spread
    • Often transmitted through the fecal-oral route due to not washing one’s hands after using the bathroom
slide34
AIDS
  • Incurable (at present) disease
    • Great care must be taken to avoid contact with this virus
    • Wash hands
    • Wear protective eyewear, gloves, and a mask to prevent exposure to splattering blood or other body fluids
universal precautions2
Universal Precautions
  • Health care workers must be familiar with these precautions:
    • Wear gloves when one has contact with blood, body secretions, or broken skin
    • Do not reuse gloves
universal precautions3
Universal Precautions
  • Health care workers must be familiar with these precautions:
    • Wear protective eyewear and a mask during any procedures that may expose you to splattering blood or other body fluids
universal precautions4
Universal Precautions
  • Health care workers must be familiar with these precautions:
    • Wear disposable gowns if blood or body fluids may splatter
    • Thoroughly wash hands and other skin surfaces immediately following contamination
universal precautions5
Universal Precautions
  • Health care workers must be completely familiar with these precautions:
    • Avoid giving direct mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
    • Use mouth-to-mask method, resuscitator bags, and other available equipment
universal precautions6
Universal Precautions
  • Health care workers must be completely familiar with these precautions:
    • Keep an airway nearby when working in a health care environment
    • Avoid direct patient contact if you have open wounds or other skin conditions
universal precautions7
Universal Precautions
  • Healthcare workers must be completely familiar with these precautions:
    • Wash your hands after each patient contact and after removing gloves
    • Carefully dispose of all sharp objects in appropriate puncture-resistant containers
body secretions for which standard precautions are used
Body Secretions for which Standard Precautions Are Used
  • Urine
  • Sputum
  • Fecal material
  • Wound drainage
  • Semen
  • Vaginal secretions
body secretions for which standard precautions are used1
Body Secretions for which Standard Precautions Are Used
  • Tissues
  • Synovial fluid
    • Around a joint
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
    • Around brain and spinal cord
body secretions for which standard precautions are used2
Body Secretions for which Standard Precautions Are Used
  • Pleural fluid
    • Lung
  • Peritoneal fluid
    • Abdominal cavity
  • Pericardial fluid
    • Around the heart
  • Amniotic fluid
universal precautions8
Universal precautions
  • Protect Coaches & ATs
    • Policy for OSHA training
    • Purchase proper supplies
  • Protect Athletes
    • Use mouthpieces in high-risk sports
    • Shower immediately
    • Immunizations
  • Postexposure Procedures
    • Confidential medical evaluation
take home message
Take home message…
  • Minimize risks by not eating/drinking, applying cosmetics/lip balm, handling contact lenses, and touching face before washing hands in athletic training room
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