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America in the 1920s…. Part II. Corporate Revolution. Mergers By 1929 ½ of national wealth absorbed by top 200 corporations. Chain stores became common Sears and Roebuck Managerial Revolution

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corporate revolution
Corporate Revolution
  • Mergers
    • By 1929 ½ of national wealth absorbed by top 200 corporations.
    • Chain stores became common
      • Sears and Roebuck
  • Managerial Revolution
    • Corporate leadership began to be controlled by college-trained rather than “build the company from the ground” type (Henry Fords)
    • Business schools open
    • Businesses add more layers of management.
white collar workers
White Collar Workers
  • 1920 – 1930 WCJ rose 38.1%
    • 10.5-14.5 million 1900 and 18% white collar
    • 444% by 1930
  • Huge increase of consumer products create a need for advertising and sales people
women in the work force
Women in the Work Force
  • Typewriter, invented by Remington Co. in 1874, significant
  • All typists were middle-class, high school educated and female
    • Needed to be a good speller and knowledge of grammar.
    • Lower class men and women lacked these skills.
    • Upper class men could get better paying jobs
  • Also teachers, shot clerks, cashiers, and switchboard operators
  • 57% of female work force comprised of black and foreign-born women, mostly in domestic service jobs.
frank lloyd wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Most famous architect in US history
  • Building grown from sites
    • Not imitate Greek and Roman models
    • Guggenheim Museum in NYC most famous.
sports
Sports
  • Became house-hold names due to “image making”
  • Babe Ruth
    • Fans bought tickets in such numbers that Yankee Stadium became known as “the house that Ruth built”
  • Jack Dempsey
    • Heavyweight champion knocked out French lightweight George Carpentier
frederick w taylor
Frederick W. Taylor
  • Started movement to develop more efficient working methods increasing productivity which eventually led to increased wages, which led to increase profits.
  • The Principles of Scientific Management (1911).
  • Auto industry.
    • Detroit emerged as the automobile capital of the world.
automobile impact
Automobile Impact
  • Replaced the steel industry as the king industry in America.
  • Employed about 6 million people by 1930
  • Supported industries
  • Petroleum industry exploded
  • Nation’s standard of living improved
  • Speedy marketing of perishable foodstuff were accelerated
  • Highways emerged
  • Leisure time spent traveling
airplane
Airplane
  • Dec. 17, 1903 Wright Brothers (Orville and Wilbur)
    • Flew a gasoline-powered plane 12 seconds and 120 feet at Kitty Hawk, N.C.
    • Launched air age
  • Airplane used with some success in WWI
    • After war Passenger lines with airmail contracts
  • Charles Lindberg
    • 1st solo flight across the Atlantic.
    • Spirit of St. Louis flew from NY to Paris in 39 hours and 39 minutes
    • Became an American icon and hero
impact
Impact
  • Civilization became closely linked
  • Railroads received yet another setback as airplanes stole passengers and mail services.
  • Devastating effects during WWII.
radio
Radio
  • Guglielmo Marconi
    • Italian, invented wireless telegraphy of the 1890s
  • National Broadcasting Co. organized in 1926
  • Columbia Broadcasting Co. in 1927
    • FIRST national radio networks
    • Amos n’ Andy
  • Impacts
    • New industry, nation tied together, families brought closer together, stimulated sports and advertising.
movies
Movies
  • 1st real moving picture in 1903
    • The Great Train Robbery
  • Hollywood becomes movie capital of the world
  • Stars
    • Charlie Chaplin, Rudolph Valentino
  • 1927 first “talkie”
    • The Jazz Singer
  • 1930s some colored films being produced
  • Eclipsed all other new forms of amusement
  • Actors and actresses
    • Huge salaries
working conditions
Working Conditions
  • Reduction in hours
    • 1923 US Steel offered its working three eight-hour shifts instead of a 12-hour shift.
  • Welfare Capitalism
    • American Plan of Business
    • If workers were taken care of, no unions or strikes would be needed.
slide18
Jazz
  • After WWI (Dance music)
  • African influenced slave spirituals grew into jubilees and the blues
  • A.A. fold music retained a certain melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic element that formed a common body of sound.
  • Ragtime works became published in late 1890s considered to be the earliest jazz
slide20
Louis Armstrong: become first master improviser – some see this as the creation of jazz
  • New Orleans exports Jazz
  • Chicago, center of Jazz, after people move from New Orleans
    • The center for Swing in 1930s
harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • Harlem
    • Black enclave in NYC
    • With about 100,000 residents in the 1920s that will grow rapidly after WWI.
  • Harlem produced a wealth of the AA poetry, literature, art and music, expressing the pain, sorrow, and discrimination blacks felt at this time.
slide22
Poets: Langston Hughes and Claude McKay
  • Jazz: Duke Ellington (1899-1974) and Cotton Club (famous night club)
    • Piano player who formed one of most famous Jazz bands in history.
marcus garvey
Marcus Garvey
  • UNIA: United Negro Improvement Association
  • “Back to Africa Movement”
  • Advocated black racial pride and separatism rather than integration.
  • Native of Jamaica
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