America in the 1920s
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America in the 1920s…. Part II. Corporate Revolution. Mergers By 1929 ½ of national wealth absorbed by top 200 corporations. Chain stores became common Sears and Roebuck Managerial Revolution

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Corporate revolution
Corporate Revolution

  • Mergers

    • By 1929 ½ of national wealth absorbed by top 200 corporations.

    • Chain stores became common

      • Sears and Roebuck

  • Managerial Revolution

    • Corporate leadership began to be controlled by college-trained rather than “build the company from the ground” type (Henry Fords)

    • Business schools open

    • Businesses add more layers of management.



White collar workers
White Collar Workers

  • 1920 – 1930 WCJ rose 38.1%

    • 10.5-14.5 million 1900 and 18% white collar

    • 444% by 1930

  • Huge increase of consumer products create a need for advertising and sales people


Women in the work force
Women in the Work Force

  • Typewriter, invented by Remington Co. in 1874, significant

  • All typists were middle-class, high school educated and female

    • Needed to be a good speller and knowledge of grammar.

    • Lower class men and women lacked these skills.

    • Upper class men could get better paying jobs

  • Also teachers, shot clerks, cashiers, and switchboard operators

  • 57% of female work force comprised of black and foreign-born women, mostly in domestic service jobs.


Frank lloyd wright
Frank Lloyd Wright

  • Most famous architect in US history

  • Building grown from sites

    • Not imitate Greek and Roman models

    • Guggenheim Museum in NYC most famous.


Sports
Sports

  • Became house-hold names due to “image making”

  • Babe Ruth

    • Fans bought tickets in such numbers that Yankee Stadium became known as “the house that Ruth built”

  • Jack Dempsey

    • Heavyweight champion knocked out French lightweight George Carpentier


Frederick w taylor
Frederick W. Taylor

  • Started movement to develop more efficient working methods increasing productivity which eventually led to increased wages, which led to increase profits.

  • The Principles of Scientific Management (1911).

  • Auto industry.

    • Detroit emerged as the automobile capital of the world.


Automobile impact
Automobile Impact

  • Replaced the steel industry as the king industry in America.

  • Employed about 6 million people by 1930

  • Supported industries

  • Petroleum industry exploded

  • Nation’s standard of living improved

  • Speedy marketing of perishable foodstuff were accelerated

  • Highways emerged

  • Leisure time spent traveling


Airplane
Airplane

  • Dec. 17, 1903 Wright Brothers (Orville and Wilbur)

    • Flew a gasoline-powered plane 12 seconds and 120 feet at Kitty Hawk, N.C.

    • Launched air age

  • Airplane used with some success in WWI

    • After war Passenger lines with airmail contracts

  • Charles Lindberg

    • 1st solo flight across the Atlantic.

    • Spirit of St. Louis flew from NY to Paris in 39 hours and 39 minutes

    • Became an American icon and hero




Impact
Impact

  • Civilization became closely linked

  • Railroads received yet another setback as airplanes stole passengers and mail services.

  • Devastating effects during WWII.


Radio
Radio

  • Guglielmo Marconi

    • Italian, invented wireless telegraphy of the 1890s

  • National Broadcasting Co. organized in 1926

  • Columbia Broadcasting Co. in 1927

    • FIRST national radio networks

    • Amos n’ Andy

  • Impacts

    • New industry, nation tied together, families brought closer together, stimulated sports and advertising.


Movies
Movies

  • 1st real moving picture in 1903

    • The Great Train Robbery

  • Hollywood becomes movie capital of the world

  • Stars

    • Charlie Chaplin, Rudolph Valentino

  • 1927 first “talkie”

    • The Jazz Singer

  • 1930s some colored films being produced

  • Eclipsed all other new forms of amusement

  • Actors and actresses

    • Huge salaries


Working conditions
Working Conditions

  • Reduction in hours

    • 1923 US Steel offered its working three eight-hour shifts instead of a 12-hour shift.

  • Welfare Capitalism

    • American Plan of Business

    • If workers were taken care of, no unions or strikes would be needed.



Jazz

  • After WWI (Dance music)

  • African influenced slave spirituals grew into jubilees and the blues

  • A.A. fold music retained a certain melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic element that formed a common body of sound.

  • Ragtime works became published in late 1890s considered to be the earliest jazz




Harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance this as the creation of jazz

  • Harlem

    • Black enclave in NYC

    • With about 100,000 residents in the 1920s that will grow rapidly after WWI.

  • Harlem produced a wealth of the AA poetry, literature, art and music, expressing the pain, sorrow, and discrimination blacks felt at this time.


  • Poets: Langston Hughes and Claude McKay this as the creation of jazz

  • Jazz: Duke Ellington (1899-1974) and Cotton Club (famous night club)

    • Piano player who formed one of most famous Jazz bands in history.


Marcus garvey
Marcus Garvey this as the creation of jazz

  • UNIA: United Negro Improvement Association

  • “Back to Africa Movement”

  • Advocated black racial pride and separatism rather than integration.

  • Native of Jamaica


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